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Chapter 11 – WATER UNDER THE GROUND PowerPoint Presentation
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  1. Chapter 11 – WATER UNDER THE GROUND

  2. Freshwater Underground Ground water Subsurface water contained in pore spaces in regolith & bedrock

  3. Freshwater Underground Zone of aeration Mix of air & water Zone of saturation Saturated with water Water table Top of saturated zone

  4. How groundwater moves Porosity % of total volume of rock body or regolith made of open spaces (pores) Permeability Measure of how easily a solid allows fluids to pass through it Freshwater Underground

  5. How groundwater moves Hydraulic gradient Change in elevation divided by distance Used to determine rate of groundwater flow Freshwater Underground

  6. How groundwater moves (continued) Percolation Groundwater seeps downward Recharge Replenishment of groundwater Discharge Subsurface water leaves saturated zone Becomes surface water Spring Occurs where water table intersects land surface Freshwater Underground

  7. How groundwater moves (continued) Other methods of discharge Hot springs Geysers Freshwater Underground

  8. Where groundwater is stored Aquifer Rock body or regolith that is water saturated, porous, & permeable Aquiclude Layer of impermeable rock Freshwater Underground

  9. Where groundwater is stored Aquifer Unconfined Confined Potentiometricsurface Artesian well Freshwater Underground

  10. Groundwater depletion Cone of depression Cone-shaped dip in water table due to pumping Groundwater mining Rates of groundwater withdrawal continuously exceed rate of recharge Freshwater Underground

  11. Groundwater depletion (continued) Land subsidence Compaction Salt water intrusion Freshwater Underground

  12. Groundwater contamination Contamination Freshwater Underground

  13. Dealing with groundwater issues Enhanced recharge Conservation Other sources Desalination (i.e. distillation; reverse osmosis; electrolysis) Icebergs Freshwater Underground

  14. Natural methods Filtration Decomposition Bacterial action Human methods Exterior treatments Dilution Chemical treatments Freshwater Underground

  15. Groundwater in the U.S.

  16. Groundwater Mining Recharge rate vs. consumption rate Ogallala Aquifer: largest aquifer in U.S. 225,000 sq miles Found in 8 states 30,000 years of water accumulation Groundwater in the U.S.

  17. Ogallala Aquifer

  18. Groundwater in Nebraska

  19. Groundwater in Nebraska

  20. Groundwater in Nebraska What areas seem best suited for groundwater withdrawal? Why do you think these areas are not utilized? Answer: The Nebraska Sandhills However, Crops do not grow well in sand, so the area is primarily used for ranching.

  21. When groundwater dissolves rock Carbon dioxide + water = carbonic acid Adds acid to water in atmosphere & underground Calcite + carbonic acid = dissolution Calcite dissolves Freshwater Underground

  22. Factors of dissolution Rock composition Extent of rock fracturing, jointing, & bedding Acidity of water Climate Freshwater Underground

  23. When groundwater dissolves rock Karst topography Sinkholes Disappearing streams Freshwater Underground

  24. When groundwater dissolves rock Cave Underground open space Cavern = system of connected caves Stalactites Stalagmites Columns (pillars) Freshwater Underground