Chapter 11WATER Mr. Manskopf Notes can also be found at http://www.manskopf.com
How many bodies of water can you identify/locate? Is there more or less water on Earth today then there was 1 billion years ago?
Goals for Chapter 11… • Describe where Earth’s water resources are located. • How is Earth’s water a limited resource? • How can we manage our water resources better? • What are the main causes and impacts of water pollution?
Next time you take a drink, think about where that water might have been before.
Next time rain drops fall on you, think about where that water might have been just a few days ago.
It is sacred to some : The Maya believed natural wells, such as the Xkeken cenote in Mexico's Yucatán, led to the underworld.
Water Is Unique • Can’t live without • Takes long time to change temperature • Stays liquid over large range of temps. • Expands when freezes • Great at dissolving things • Commonly found as solid, liquid and gas
Section 1: Water Resources GOALS: • Describe the location of water on Earth’s surface. • How does the water cycle “work?” • Explain why freshwater is a limited resource. • TERMS: surface water, river system, watershed, groundwater, aquifer, porosity, permeability, recharge zone, water cycle
Water Cycle The continual process by which water moves through living and nonliving parts of our world. • Solar Powered • Renewable Resource • “Steps” followed
Where is water found? • 71% of earth is covered in water • 97% of that is in oceans • Most of the remaining 3% fresh, mainly in ice caps and glaciers.
Surface Water • Fresh water on Earth’s land • Rivers • Lakes • Streams • Ponds • Critical for: drinking, transportation, waste removal, industry, food, farming, recreation Delaware River Where does all that water come from???
Watershed: an area of land that is drained by a single river • Bathtub analogy • How can a farmer in NY State Impact drinking water in Camden? • Who should set pollution laws LOCAL, SATE, FEDERAL?
Mississippi River Watershed is the largest in U.S. How does a cattle farmer in Montana potentially impact a shrimp fisherman in Louisiana? RIVER SYSTEM
Groundwater • Water beneath Earth’s surface, located in rocks, sediment and soil • Camden’s tap water • How does it get there? • How can we use it?
Groundwater What is a recharge zone?
Aquifer • Underground rock formation containing water • Important source of water
Porosity • How much space (pores) or holes found in rock • Where water can flow through • Porous rock can hold lots of water
Permeable vs. Impermeable • The ability of rock or soil to allow water to flow through it • Sand and gravel are permeable • Clay and blacktop are impermeable
Section 1 REVIEW • Describe the location of water on Earth’s surface. • How does the water cycle “work?” • Explain why freshwater is a limited resource. • TERMS: surface water, river system, watershed, groundwater, aquifer, porosity, permeability, recharge zone, water cycle
Section 2 : Water Use and Management GOALS: • Identify how water is used in home, industry and agriculture. • Explain how and why water is treated before coming to your home. • Describe ways to increase water supplies • Identify ways to conserve water • TERMS: potable, pathogen, dam, reservoir, desalinization
Aylito Binayo's feet know the mountain. Even at four in the morning she can run down the rocks to the river by starlight alone and climb the steep mountain back up to her village with 50 pounds of water on her back. She has made this journey three times a day for nearly all her 25 years. So has every other woman in her village of Foro, in the Konso district of southwestern Ethiopia. Binayo dropped out of school when she was eight years old, in part because she had to help her mother fetch water from the Toiro River. The water is dirty and unsafe to drink; every year that the ongoing drought continues, the once mighty river grows more exhausted. But it is the only water Foro has ever had.
According to the U.N., 1 billion people do not have access to clean, reliable fresh water
How Much Water Do You Use Average person in U.S. uses about 80 gallons a day
How Much Water Is Needed http://environment.nationalgeographic.com/environment/freshwater/embedded-water/ Your water footprint http://environment.nationalgeographic.com/environment/freshwater/water-footprint-calculator/
Making Water Safe Potable: safe to drink Most water needs to be treated Pathogens: organisms that cause diseases Bacteria, viruses, worms
Uses of Water Industrial Water Use • 19% of worldwide water use • Cooling power plants • To make “stuff”
Uses of Water Agriculture: • 67% of worldwide water use • Irrigation: providing water to plants • 80 gallons to produce 1 ear of corn • 1 lb. beef = 1,000 gal. • LOTS OF WATER
Irrigation As much as 80% normally evaporates Drip Irrigation, reduces that number greatly
Water Management • Humans have altered water flow for thousands of years • Engineering • Dams, canals, pipes, towers bring water to where it is needed
California aqueduct brings water hundreds of miles, across deserts, mountains
Dams and Reservoirs Reservoir: an artificial lake often behind a dam Dams: • Flood control • Recreation • Supply water • Generate electricity