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Tanner Sands

Tanner Sands

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Tanner Sands

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  1. West Nile Virus Tanner Sands

  2. General Information • It is part of the Flaviviridae family which is a family of viruses generally spread through arthropod vectors • It is from the genus Flavivirus • It is generally transmitted from mosquito bites, or dead birds • It contains RNA

  3. History • Believed to have emerged 1000 years ago • One of the causes of Alexander the Great’s death • First discovered in 1937 in the West Nile district of Uganda during a study on Yellow Fever • West Nile Virus first came to the Western Hemisphere around 1999 with encephalitis (inflammation of the brain) found in humans, dogs, horses, and other animals • It first hit America in the New York area, it initially came by mosquito

  4. Replication • It generally replicates in the Cytoplasm or Vacuole of host cells • Once inside the Cytoplasm it translates its RNA into the host cell’s ribosomes by mimicking the mRNA of the host cell, this results in synthesis of a single polyprotien • This polyprotien is then cleaved into mature protiens and RNA is synthesized • Release occurs in cell lysis • Translation takes 20-30 hours • It uses the lytic cycle

  5. Effects • There are three different effects West Nile Virus has on humans • Asymptomatic Enfection • Mild Febrile syndrome (or West Nile Fever) • West Nile Meningitis or Encephalitis

  6. Symptoms • About 80 percent of people infected with West Nile Virus will show no symptoms • For the other 20 percent symptoms include: fever, headache, body aches, nausea, vomiting, swollen lymph glands and skin rash on the chest, stomach or back • Symptoms can last between a few days and a few weeks • In severe cases symptoms can include: high fever, headache, neck stiffness, stupor, disorientation, coma, tremors, convulsions, muscle weakness, vision loss, numbness and paralysis. These symptoms can last several weeks and neurological effects can be permanent • Most people infected with West Nile Virus will experience their symptoms within the first 14 days of being infected

  7. Treatment • There is no specific treatment for West Nile Virus • Most symptoms pass on their own • AMD 3100 has helped with Encephalitis in some patients • There are several treatments that have been tested in labs such as alpha interferon, ribavirin, intravenous immunoglobulin

  8. Sources • http://www.cdc.gov/ncidod/dvbid/westnile/wnv_factSheet.htm • http://www.stanford.edu/group/virus/1999/asb-flavi/bio.htm • http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/West_nile_virus • http://www.insectsofalberta.com/images/2004-07-25%20095_mosquito.jpg