CO2 Sequestration Catherine Peters Princeton University Deep Carbon Cycle Workshop May 15-17, 2008 Carnegie Institution Geophysical Laboratory
CO2 Capture and Storage (CCS) Fuels Processes Storage options INTERGOVERNMENTAL PANEL ON CLIMATE CHANGE (IPCC)
Geological storage options INTERGOVERNMENTAL PANEL ON CLIMATE CHANGE (IPCC)
CO2 phase diagram 100 Supercritical Fluid Critical Point Solid 800 m 10 depth Liquid Pressure [MPa] 1 Land Gas surface 0.1 -80 -60 -40 -20 0 20 40 60 Temperature [deg C] Deeper than 3000 m, CO2 Is denser than sea water. Density: 500 kg/m3 Data from Span and Wagner 1996
Geographical relationship between sources and storage opportunities INTERGOVERNMENTAL PANEL ON CLIMATE CHANGE (IPCC) Global distribution of large stationary sources of CO2 (Based on a compilation of publicly available information on global emission sources, IEA GHG 2002)
Geographical relationship between sources and storage opportunities Storage prospectivity Highly prospective sedimentary basins Prospective sedimentary basins Non-prospective sedimentary basins, metamorphic and igneous rock Data quality and availability vary among regions INTERGOVERNMENTAL PANEL ON CLIMATE CHANGE (IPCC) Prospective areas in sedimentary basins where suitable saline formations, oil or gas fields, or coal beds may be found. Locations for storage in coal beds are only partly included. Prospectivity is a qualitative assessment of the likelihood that a suitable storage location is present in a given area based on the available information. This figure should be taken as a guide only, because it is based on partial data, the quality of which may vary from region to region, and which may change over time and with new information (Courtesy of Geoscience Australia).
Planned and current locations of geological storage projects INTERGOVERNMENTAL PANEL ON CLIMATE CHANGE (IPCC)
Potential for Leakage INTERGOVERNMENTAL PANEL ON CLIMATE CHANGE (IPCC)
Trapping Mechanisms INTERGOVERNMENTAL PANEL ON CLIMATE CHANGE (IPCC)
Natural Analogues Basins with high CO2 content. (Baines and Worden, 2004)
“MM&V” Measurement, Monitoring and Verification 1996 1999 2001 Example: EU’s CO2SINK project in Ketzin, Germany Example: Seismic monitoring at Sleipner
Peters’ research related to CO2 sequestration • Crandell, L.E., B. R. Ellis, J. Cheung, C. A. Peters. “Injection of CO2 and co-contaminant gases: Are separation costs justifiable?”, Seventh Annual Conference on Carbon Capture & Sequestration, Pittsburgh, PA. May 2008. • Peters, C. A. 2008. “Accessibilities of reactive minerals in consolidated sedimentary rock: A BSE imaging study of three sandstones.” Chemical Geology, submitted. • Ellis, B. R., Peters, C. A., Buschkuehle, M. 2007. “Formation Buffering Potential Pertaining to Geological Storage of Carbon Dioxide”, EOS Trans. AGU, 88(52) Fall Meet. Suppl. Abstract U43C-1378. • Li, L.; C. A. Peters; M. A. Celia. 2007. "Applicability of Averaged Concentrations in Determining Geochemical Reaction Rates in Heterogeneous Porous Media", American Journal of Science. In Press. • B.R. Ellis; K.M. Bowman; C.A. Peters; M. Buschkuehle. 2007. "Consideration of formation buffering potential and reactive mineral availability pertaining to geological storage of carbon dioxide" Goldschmidt 2007. Cologne Germany. Download PDF of poster • D. Kavetski; C.A. Peters; M.A. Celia; B. Lindquist. 2007. "Upscaling reaction rate laws in geochemical reactive transport using pore-scale network models" Goldschmidt 2007. Cologne Germany. Download PDF of poster • Li, L.; C. A. Peters; M. A. Celia. 2007. "Effects of mineral spatial distribution on reaction rates in porous media" Water Resources Research 43, W01419, doi: 10.1029/2005WR004848. Download reprint. • Li, L.; C. A. Peters; M. A. Celia. 2007. "Reply to 'Comment on upscaling geochemical reaction rates using pore-scale network modeling' by Peter C. Lichtner and Qinjun Kang", Advances in Water Resources, 30:691-695. • Li, L.; C. A. Peters; M. A. Celia. 2006. "Upscaling Geochemical Reaction Rates Using Pore-Scale Network Modeling." Advances in Water Resources, 29:1351-1370. Download reprint • Giammar, D. E.; R. G. Bruant, Jr.; and C. A. Peters. 2005. "Forsterite Dissolution and Magnesite Precipitation at Conditions Relevant for Deep Saline Aquifer Storage and Sequestration of Carbon Dioxide", Chemical Geology: 217:257-276. • Bruant, R. G. Jr.; Guswa, A. J.; Celia, M. A.; Peters, C. A. "Safe Storage of Carbon Dioxide in Deep Saline Aquifers", Feature article in Environmental Science and Technology. 36(11):240A-245A, 2002. Download Reprint. Research funding from U.S. DOE Office of Basic Energy Sciences, Grant No. DE-FG02-05ER15636.
Maturity of component technologies Post-combustion Industrial separation Oxyfuel combustion Pre-combustion Transport Mineral carbonation Gas and oil fields Enhanced Coal Bed Methane Enhanced Oil Recovery Ocean storage Saline formations Industrial utilization Economically feasible under specific conditions Mature market Demonstration phase Research phase INTERGOVERNMENTAL PANEL ON CLIMATE CHANGE (IPCC)
Ocean storage INTERGOVERNMENTAL PANEL ON CLIMATE CHANGE (IPCC)
M(II)CO3 H+ CaAl2Si2O8(s) Ca2+ Mg5Al2Si3O10(OH)8(s) Mg2+ M(II)AlxSiyOz H+ M(II)CO3 M2+ M2+ CO32- CaCO3 (s)Ca2+ Mg2+ + CO3= MgCO3 (s)
Changes in porosity and permeability Source: J. W. Johnson et al. 2004