Question: • China is a multiethnic country, how does it unite its 56 ethnic groups?
What are the defining elements of an ethnic group? • Language • Homeland • Social values
Ethnic groups 8.41%, 106.43million Han people 91.59% 1159.4million
What is the ethnic policy in China? • Equality • Unity • Mutual assistance • Common prosperity
Han people • Chinese language (spoken and written language)—Chinese-Tibetan language family • Main occupation---agriculture • China’s main great inventions---compass, papermaking, printing and gunpowder
Han culture---Confucianism, Ancester worship, Chinese religions (Buddhism, Taoism, Roman Catholocism, Christianism and Islamism) Origin---Han Dynasty (Huaxia)
The 55 minority groups are: Achang, Bai, Mongolian, Mulam, Naxi, Nu, Oroqen, Ozbek, Pumi, Qiang, Russian, Salar, She, Shui, Tatar, Tajik, Tibetan, Tu, Tujia, Uygur, Wa, Xibe, Yao, Yi, Yugur, Zhuang Blang, Bonan, Bouyei, Dai, Daur, De'ang, Dong, Dongxiang, Dulong, Ewenki, Gaoshan, Gelo, Hani, Hezhe, Hui, Jing, Jino, Jingpo, Kazak, Kirgiz, Korean, Lahu, Li, Lisu, Lhoba, Manchu, Maonan, Miao, Moinba,. Tips: 53 ethnic groups use spoken languages of their own, and 23 ethnic groups have their own written languages.
Zhuang Ethnic Minority • China’s largest ethnic minority; • Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region, Yunnan, Guangdong, Guizhou, and Hunan provinces; • Language---Zhuang-Dai branch of Zhuang-Dong Austronesian, part of the Chinese-Tibetan Phylum, Chinese language
Origin---Song dynasty; 1958; 1964 Main occupation---agriculture (paddy, corn) Folk literature---legends, fairy tales, stories and ballads Religion---polytheists, worshipping things like giant rocks, old trees, high mountains, land, dragons, snakes, birds and ancestors; (Taoism and Buddhism)
Festivals---the Spring Festivals, the Mid-autumn Festival, the Dragon Boat Festival, the Devil Festival. The Cattle Soul Festival, the Feasting Festival, and the Singing Festival (on the third of the third lunar month )
Hui Ethnic Minority • The one of the largest ethnic minority groups and the most widely distributed ethnic minority; • The Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region, Gansu, Qinghai, Henan, Hebei, Shandong and Yunnan provinces and the Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region. • Language---Chinese • Origin---the 7th century
Main occupation---agriculture (livestock), trade handicraft (jewelry, jade and bullion) Religion---the Islamic religion Architecture---mosque Festivals---the Kaizhai Festival, Corban Festival and Almsgiving Festival
the entire month of September the first day of October The Kaizhai Festival
Language---the Tibetan language, the Tibetan script Tibet Autonomous Region, Qinghai, Gansu, Sichuan and Yunnan provinces Origin---King Songzan Gampo Tibetan Ethnic Minority
Main occupation---stockbreeding, and agriculture (highland barley, sheep, goat and yak-Boat of the Plateau) Architecture---unique in style, with building neatly arranged or rising like magnificent towers and castles The Potala Palace
Religion---Lamaism(a branch of Buddhism) Dalai Lama XIV the 11th Panchen Lama
Festivals---The Tibetan New Year, the Shoton Festival, the Great Prayer Festival, the Butter Lamp Festival, the Saga Dawa Festival, the Gyangtse Horse-race Festival, the Nakchu Horse-Race Festival, and the Yarlung Culture Festival.
The Tibetan calendar Food: zanba(roasted qingke barley flour with butter), gudu/guthug(wheat flour), qingke wine(highland barely) The greatest festival celebrated on the highest plateau in the world (Page 182) The Tibetan New Year
Mongolian Ethnic Minority • The Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region, Xinjiang, Liaoning, Jilin, Heilongjiang, Gansu , Sichuan, Ningxia, Yunnan and Qinghai provinces • Language---Mongolian, the Mongolian script
Origin---Genghis Khan • Main occupation---agriculture and industries (Kumiss and roasted mutton) • Religion--- Shamanists Lamaism
Festival---the Nadam Festival, the Bai Festival(The Mongolian New Year)
Nadam Fair A traditional festival observed by the Mongolian people who inhabit Inner Mongolia, Gansu, Qinghai and Xinjiang. “Nadam”--- “recreation”or “games”(Han Dynasty) Men’s three events---horse racing, wrestling, and archery Fair
Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region, Hunan Province Language---the Altaic family Origin--- Western region(西域) Uygur Ethnic Minority
Main occupation---agriculture (growing cotton, breeding silkworms, and spinning and weaving) Culture---folk tales, parables, comedies, poems and proverbs, dances(“Bowls-on-Head Dance”, “Drum Dance,etc.) Religion---Islam
Festival---The Corban Festival(Zaishengjie) (page 180), the Kaizhai Festival and the Nuolu Festival “Corban”--- “sacrifice” or “dedication” Origin---Ibrahim(the Prophet), Allah, Ismail Customs---bathe, pray, and watch the ceremony for sacrificing animals, etc.
Questions How many ethnic minority groups are there in China? How many ethnic minority groups in China do you know? Where do most of them live?