PBIS Team Training Module 1: Universal Implementation
Exceptional Children Division Behavior Support & Special Programs Positive Behavior Intervention & Support Initiative
Modules developed by the University of Missouri Center for School-wide PBIS and revised by North Carolina PBIS Trainers
Expectations • Be Responsible • Return promptly from breaks • Be an active participant • Be Respectful • Turn off cell phone ringers • Listen attentively to others • Be Kind • Participate in activities • Listen and respond appropriately to others’ ideas
Attention Signal • Trainer will raise his/her hand • Participants will raise their hand and wait quietly
Institute Overview • Training organized around three “modules” • School responsibilities • Complete Working Agreement • Attend training • Develop action plans • Share Annual Data Requirements with NCDPI • NCDPI responsibilities • Provide training support • Provide limited technical assistance • Provide networking opportunities
Institute Objectives • Participants will learn… • Basics for understanding and addressing problem behavior • Building a continuum of universal approaches to prevention and intervention • Basics of a successful PBIS team • Skills for data-based decision-making
Overview: Module 1 • Context for understanding problem behavior • Best practices to address problem behavior • Systems approach to school climate • Key features of Universal prevention / early intervention approaches • PBIS References and resources • Data-based school assessment and action planning
Module 1 Accomplishments At the end of these two days, teams are expected to… • Determine PBIS team roles and meeting dates • Start expectations & rules matrix • Plan data collection and dissemination • Discuss consequence systems • Discuss reward systems • Plan integration into School Improvement Plan
Just The Facts Why do we need PBIS?
Typical responses are inefficient because they…. Foster environments of external control Reinforce antisocial behavior Shift accountability away from school Weaken the relationship between academic & social behavior programming Fail to consider other contributing factors
Contributing Factors • Community • Parent/Child Interactions • Poverty • Language Deficits • Cultural Differences • Suspensions • Dropout • Disability • School
Contributing Factors Community • Lack of pro-social engagement (recreation, job opportunities)(Biglan, 1995) • Antisocial network of peers (Biglan, 1995) • Lack of adult involvement (role models or supervision)
Contributing FactorsParent/Child Social Interactions Common patterns of early learning found in homes of children at-risk for anti-social behavior: • Inconsistent discipline • Punitive management: Coercion/Negative Reinforcement • Lack of monitoring
Poverty • Poverty is linked to a greater risk for behavioral difficulties for pre-schoolers. (Adams, Hillman, Gaydos, 1994) • Poverty has adverse effects on educational achievement. (Hill & Sandfort, 1995) • Lowest 20% SES 6X more likely to dropout (Kerr & Nelson, 2002)
Poverty and “High Risk” • Teachers asked to identify “high risk” students that needed special help • Minority students named about the same proportion as they are represented in total population • Low SES (free-lunch) students make up 8% of the total school population but 14% were identified by teachers (Warren, Gardner, & Hogan, 2001)
Contributing Factors:Poverty & Language Over one year (11-18 mo.) • Children in poverty—hear 250,000 words per year • Children in homes of professionals—hear 4 million words per year (Hart & Risley, 1995)
Contributing FactorsPoverty & Language Affirmative statements • Professional—30 per hour • Working class—15 per hour • Poverty—6 per hour (prohibition twice as often as affirmative feedback) (Hart & Risley, 1995)
Contributing FactorsPoverty & Language “To keep the confidence-building experiences of welfare children equal to those of working class children, the welfare children would need to be given 1,100 more instances of affirmative feedback per week…”(p.201). “It would take 26 hours per week of substituted experience for the average welfare child’s experience with affirmatives to equal that of the average working-class child”(p. 202). (Hart & Risley, 1995)
Perceptions of Cultural Difference • Teachers given photos of children and asked to predict which students would fail. • Virtually all black children selected as failures were perceived as being lower SES • Almost all of the white children who were expected to succeed were perceived in the middle and upper SES categories • Regardless of SES white children were more often expected to succeed (Harvey & Slatin, 1975)
Aggression & Antisocial Behavior • The stability of aggression over a decade is very high; about the same as IQ • If antisocial behavior is not changed by the end of grade 3, it should be treated as a chronic condition much like diabetes. That is, it cannot be cured but managed with the appropriate supports and continuing intervention (Walker, Colvin, & Ramsey, 1995)
Suspensions & Dropouts • 1 in 10 NC students is suspended - 45% higher rate than national average (NC Child Advocacy Institute, 2005) • Students who are suspended are 3 times more likely to drop out (Action for Children NC, 2007)
Suspensions & Dropouts • Three years after leaving school, 70% of antisocial youth have been arrested (Walker, Colvin, & Ramsey, 1995) • 82% of crimes are committed by people who have dropped out of school (APA Commission on Youth Violence, 1993) • One year’s class of dropouts costs NC $1.3 billion in corrections and welfare (NC Child Advocacy Institute, 2005)
(Kerr & Nelson, 2002) Contributing FactorsDisability
Contributing FactorsSchool • Punitive disciplinary approach • Lack of clarity about rules, expectations, and consequences • Lack of staff support • Failure to consider and accommodate individual differences • Academic failure (Mayer, 1995)
TEAM TIME • Think with your team about your school. Work together to determine YOUR 3 primary challenges. Workbook Page 1
National Recommendations 2001 Surgeon General’s Report • Break up antisocial networks • Increase academic success • Create positive school climates • Adopt primary prevention agenda
State Superintendent June Atkinson’s TEN IMPERATIVES FOR ALL SCHOOL DISTRICTS 1 Set benchmark graduation goals for each high school and publicize the goal with the community. 2 Start early in identifying students who are at risk of dropping out. 3 Develop a community structure to support students with mentors, academic assistance, and career and education counseling. 4 Develop a system of extra help and assistance directly related to students’ academic areas of needed improvement. 5 Develop a system of professional development for teachers, specifically addressing strategies for improving achievement for all students.
State Superintendent June Atkinson’s TEN IMPERATIVES FOR ALL SCHOOL DISTRICTS 6 Develop a transition program for 9th grade students. 7 Address the attendance of 7th and 8th grade students. 8 Redesign high schools that have low graduation rates and chronic student achievement problems. 9 Require a rigorous and relevant course of study with engaging electives for each student. 10 Use engaging technology to teach today’s generation.
People’s Alliance PAC 2008 QuestionnaireJune St. Clair AtkinsonNorth Carolina State Superintendent What are some of the programs that are working well in North Carolina? • Early college high schools • Career centers • Career or economic themed schools within schools • Literacy coaches • Ninth grade academies • Teaching through the arts • Advanced placement courses • Case management pilots for at-risk students • Inquiry-based science programs for elementary and middle schools • Positive Behavior Intervention & Support initiatives
Why PBIS? • Problems are increasing • Typical responses are inefficient • Schools implementing comprehensive PBIS see long term change • Reduction of ODR • Reduction of suspension • Increased staff morale and retention • Positive school climate
Traditional Discipline vs. PBIS Traditional Discipline: - Focused on the student’s problem behavior - Goal was to stop undesirable behavior, through the use of punishment. Positive Behavior Intervention & Support: - Replaces undesired behavior with a new behavior or skill. - PBIS alters environments, teaches appropriate skills, and rewards appropriate behavior.
Troutman MiddleIredell-Statesville ODRs Pre and Post PBIS Implementation
Troutman Middle SchoolIredell-Statesville P BS Bullying Data
Tertiary Prevention 6+ Referrals Secondary Prevention 2-5 Referrals ~21% ~24% Primary Prevention 0-1 Referrals ~ 55% of Students 2007-08 Washington High Beaufort 2006-07
Charlotte/Mecklenburg Implementation Data • Elementary PBIS schools increased the number of students passing the EOG reading test as they progressed from grades 3 to 5 by 13.9%, compared to 7.7% for similar non-implementing schools. • Elementary bus behavior decreased by 5.73% between first and fourth quarter for 2006-07.
Why PBIS? Because it works!
Activity : School’s Dream Workbook Page 2