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Wheelock XXVI

Wheelock XXVI

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Wheelock XXVI

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  1. Wheelock XXVI Comparison of Adjectives; Declension of Comparatives; Ablative of Comparison

  2. Comparison of Adjectives Thus far, we have learned to use adjectives to indicate a basic characteristic: vir beātus, a happy man. This is called the "positive degree." As in English, however, adjectives can also be compared: • comparative degree: vir beātior, the happier man • superlative degree: vir beātissimus, the happiest man

  3. Formation of Comparative/Superlative • Base taken from genitive of positive degree • Comparative: • base + -ior (masc./fem.), -ius (neut.); -iōris, gen. • Superlative: • base + -issimus, -issima, -issimum

  4. Declension of Comparatives *Normally, 3rd declension adjectives follow the i-stem pattern. Comparatives are the one exception.

  5. Declension of Comparatives *Normally, 3rd declension adjectives follow the i-stem pattern. Comparatives are the one exception.

  6. Translating • Comparatives • more/-er • associate -ōr- with more/-er • Superlatives • most/-est • English and Latin both have S in the superlative form • Spanish speakers should have no problem with this

  7. Quam • When quam follows a comparative, it means than • Hī librī sunt clāriōrēs quam illī. These books are more famous than those. • Dīcit hōs virōs esse fortiōrēs quam illōs. *Notice the same construction/case follows quam as precedes • When quam precedes a superlative, it indicates the greatest possible • Amīcus meus erat vir quam iūcundissimus; My friend was the pleasantest man possible or as pleasant as can be.

  8. Ablative of Comparison • When the first element to be compared was in the nominative or accusative, quam was often omitted, and the second element became ablative (the ablative of comparison) • Quis est sapientior quam ego? --> Quis est sapientior mē? • Cōnsilia tua sunt clāriōra lūce, your plans are clearer than light • Vīdī paucōs fēlīciōres patre tuō, I have seen few men happier than your father OR I have seen that few men are happier than your father.

  9. Latin Phrases Gravioraremanent. Omnia dicta fortiorasi dicta Latina Rosārubicundior, liliōcandidior, omnibus formosior, semper in teglorior (glorior = I boast) Virtusunitafortior. Vita incerta; mors quam certissima. Amor et melle et felleestfecundissimus. Celerius quam asparagicocuntur

  10. Translate Putastēfrigidiorem quam mēesse. Etiamsīamantēssumus, quam amantissimīnōnsumus. Mea uxor secundapudiciora quam mea prima erit. Turpiorespisce! Tuaverbamētristissimumvirumfēcērunt.

  11. Sententiae Antīquae • Senectūs est loquācior. (loquāx, loquācis, garrulous) • Tua cōnsilia omnia nōbis clāriōra sunt quam lūx. • Quaedam remedia graviōra sunt quam ipsa perīcula. • Eō diē, virōs fortissimōs atque amantissimōs reī pūblicae ad mē vocāvī. (amans rei publicae, patriotic) • Partem turpissimam amōris vītate!

  12. Iūcundissima dōna semper sunt ea quae auctor ipse cāra facit. • Beātissimus vir superba līmina potentiōrum cīvium vītat. • Verba currunt; at manus notāriī est vēlōcior illīs; manus eius laborem perfēcit. (notārius, -iī, stenographer---vēlōx, swift---perficere, to complete) • Multī putant rēs bellicās graviōrēs esse quam rēs urbānās; sed haec sententia mūtanda est. (bellicus) • Invītātus ad cēnam, manū sinistrā lintea sustulistī. Hoc salsum esse putās? Rēs sordidissima est!

  13. List the comparative and superlative forms of superbus, superba, superbum. • List the comparative and superlative forms of tristis, triste. • Gravioraremanent. • Vita incerta; mors quam certissima. • Turpiorespisce! • Partem turpissimam amōris vītate! • Quaedam remedia graviōra sunt quam ipsa perīcula. • In #5, what type of ablative is pisce?