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Hazardous Waste Classification in California

Hazardous Waste Classification in California

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Hazardous Waste Classification in California

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  1. Hazardous Waste Classification in California Corey Yep Waste Identification and Recycling Section State Regulatory Programs Division Hazardous Waste Management Program Department of Toxic Substances Control

  2. Purpose of Course • To introduce the basic concepts of hazardous waste classification criteria in California

  3. Objectives • Understand the term “waste” • Understand exclusions and exemptions that may apply • Understand what the hazardous waste listings and characteristics are

  4. Waste Classification Requirements • Two sets of standards in CA • Federal requirements • State requirements

  5. Federal Requirements • Statute: Chapter 42, United States Code (Resource Conservation and Recovery Act or RCRA) • (on line at http://uscode.house.gov/usc.htm) • Regulations: Title 40, Code of Federal Regulations (40 CFR) • (on line at http://www.epa.gov/epahome/cfr40toc.htm)

  6. State Requirements • Statute: California Health and Safety Code, Division 20, Chapter 6.5, Hazardous Waste Control Law • (on line at http://www.leginfo.ca.gov/calaw.html) • Regulations: California Code of Regulations, Division 4.5, Title 22 • (on line at http://www.calregs.com/)

  7. State Requirements • Important Note: Unlike the federal requirements, in California both statutes and regulations contain specific requirements

  8. California is a federally “authorized” state • Generally, California’s requirements contain all hazardous waste requirements that apply in California • Most newly adopted federal regulations do not apply in California until California adopts them

  9. Definition of Hazardous Waste§25117 HSC • Hazardous Waste • waste that meets criteria adopted by DTSC pursuant to § 25141 HSC • includes RCRA hazardous wastes

  10. Hazardous Waste Criteria§25141 HSC • Criteria shall identify wastes because of its quantity, concentration, or physical, chemical or infectious characteristics • causes or significantly contributes to an increase in mortality, serious irreversible or incapacitating reversible illness • pose substantial present or potential hazard to human health or the environment, due to …carcinogenicity, acute or chronic toxicity, bioaccumulative properties, or persistence in the environment, when improperly treated, stored, transported, or disposed of, or otherwise managed

  11. Chapter 11 - Identification and Listing of Hazardous Wastes • Article 1 • General Provisions • Definition of Waste • Definition of Hazardous Waste • Article 2 • Criteria for Identifying the Characteristics of Hazardous Waste

  12. Chapter 11 - Identification and Listing of Hazardous Wastes • Article 3 • Characteristics of Hazardous Waste • Article 4 • Lists of RCRA Hazardous Wastes • Article 5 • Categories of Hazardous Waste

  13. Waste Classification Process Waste Identification

  14. Overview of the waste classification process • Is the material a waste? • Is the material excluded or exempted? • Is the waste excluded or exempted? • Is the waste listed in Article 4? • Is the waste listed in Appendix X? • Does the waste exhibit a characteristic of hazardous waste?

  15. Waste: Layperson’s definition • A material that has been used or has otherwise served its intended purpose and, for whatever reason (contaminated, spent, or intent) can or will no longer be used for its intended purpose

  16. Definition of Waste§25124 HSC §66261.2 22 CCR • A waste is any discarded material (in any physical form, such as solid, liquid, semi-solid, contained gas) that is not excluded by 66261.4(a), 66261.4(e), or 25143.2(b) or 25143.2(d)

  17. Discarded22 CCR 66261.2(b) • A material is discarded if it is: • Relinquished • Recycled • Inherently waste-like

  18. Relinquished22 CCR 66261.2(c) • A material is relinquished if it is: • disposed of • burned or incinerated • accumulated, stored or treated (but not recycled) before, or in lieu of, being relinquished

  19. Recycled22 CCR 66261.2(d) • A material is a waste if it is recycled (or accumulated, stored or treated prior to recycling) if it is: • used in a manner constituting disposal (placed on land) • burned for energy recovery • reclaimed • accumulated speculatively

  20. Inherently Waste-like22 CCR 66261.2(e) • A material is a waste if it is inherently waste-like when it is recycled • RCRA waste codes F020, F021, F022, F023, F026 and F028 (contain dioxins) • secondary materials fed to a halogen acid furnace

  21. Packaging/Labeling22 CCR 66261.2(f) • Materials are also wastes if they are: • mislabeled or inadequately labeled, unless labeled correctly within 10 days • in a deteriorated or damaged container, unless repackaged within 96 hours • Must pose a threat to human health or the environment

  22. Waste Exclusions §25124 HSC • Materials that are not discarded: • Intermediate manufacturing process streams • Coolants, lubricants or cutting fluids that are filtered to extend their useful life

  23. Waste Exclusions §25143.2 HSC • Certain recyclable materials • ingredients in industrial processes • substitutes for commercial products • returned to original process w/out reclamation • recycled/reused onsite

  24. Waste Exclusions 22 CCR §66261.4(a) • Materials that are not wastes: • Point source discharges subject to CWA (NPDES permits) • Nuclear wastes • Spent sulfuric acid used to produce virgin sulfuric acid • reclaimed pulping liquors • reclaimed secondary materials returned to original process

  25. Overview of hazardous waste classification • Is the material a waste? • Is the material excluded or exempted? • Is the waste excluded or exempted? • Is the waste listed in Article 4? • Is the waste listed in Appendix X? • Does the waste exhibit a characteristic of hazardous waste?

  26. Hazardous Waste Exclusions 22 CCR §66261.4(b) • Wastes that are not hazardous wastes: • Infectious wastes (animal carcasses) • Wastes excluded under 40 CFR §261.4 * • Used oil re-refining still bottoms used in asphalt products • Used CFCs that are reclaimed • Mining wastes

  27. Household wastes Agricultural wastes used as fertilizers Mining overburden Fossil fuel combustion wastes Trivalent chromium wastes (leather tanning) Mining wastes Cement kiln dust Arsenic treated wood And more... Hazardous Waste Exclusions 22 CCR §66261.4(b)*Wastes excluded under 261.4(b), unless the waste also exhibits an Article 3 characteristic

  28. Hazardous Waste Exemptions22 CCR §66261.4(c-g) • materials in product or raw material storage tanks are exempt until removed (within 90 days of ceasing operation) • samples - subject to regulation as a waste after use as a sample ceases • treatability study samples for generator and labs • controlled substances

  29. Statutory Exclusions/Exemptions §25141.5(b)(2)(B) HSC • These wastes are not hazardous wastes if only hazardous by oral LD50 criteria acetic acid calcium fluoride aluminum chloride calcium formate ammonium bromide calcium propionate ammonium sulfate cesium chloride anisole magnesium chloride boric acid potassium chloride

  30. Statutory Exclusions/Exemptions §25141.5(b)(2)(B) HSC • These wastes are not hazardous wastes if only hazardous by oral LD50 criteria sodium bicarbonate food flavoring oils: sodium borate allspice oil decahydrate ceylon cinnamon oil sodium carbonate clarified slurry oil sodium chloride dill oils sodium iodide lauryl leaf oils sodium tetraborate

  31. Statutory Exclusions/Exemptions §25141.5(b)(3)(A) HSC • Effective January 1, 1996 • Excluded from hazardous waste classification for disposal purposes only • Hazardous only because of Total Threshold Limit Concentration

  32. Statutory Exclusions/Exemptions §25141.5(b)(3)(A) HSC • Must follow predisposal hazardous waste management requirements in regulations adopted by DTSC • Does not apply to: • liquids, sludges, sludge-likes, soils, finely divided or tarry materials • organic constituents

  33. Statutory Exclusions/Exemptions §25143.1 HSC • Geothermal drilling wastes • Mining wastes • still subject to TPCA • still subject to Ch. 6.8, HSC

  34. Statutory Exclusions/Exemptions §25143.1.5 HSC • Treated wood wastes • Effective January 1, 1996 • treated wood wastes exclusively from electric, gas or telephone service • must be disposed in a landfill that is authorized to accept treated wood wastes

  35. Statutory Exclusions/Exemptions §25143.8 HSC • Cementitious materials • effective January 1, 1996 • cement, cement kiln dust, clinker, clinker dust • not required to be tested for solid corrosivity • if hazardous solely due to corrosivity for solids, excluded from classification as hazardous waste

  36. Statutory Exclusions/Exemptions §25143.12 HSC • Petroleum contaminated debris if • wood, paper, textiles, concrete rubble, metallic objects, solid manufactured objects • not Federally regulated • does not contain free liquids • disposed in Class I or II landfill

  37. Statutory Exclusions/Exemptions • Asbestos wastes • §25143.7 HSC • may be disposed in a landfill that is not Class I • Biohazardous waste • §25117.5 and §117635 HSC • formaldehyde fixed human surgery specimens or tissues • Wastes contaminated with chemotherapeutic agents • pharmaceuticals

  38. Hazardous Waste Exemptions 22 CCR §66261.7 • Contaminated containers • Exempted if “empty” • RCRA empty • Empty containers are not hazardous wastes • Residues remaining in empty containers are not hazardous wastes • Still a CA hazardous waste unless CA empty too • California empty

  39. California empty • Containers empty when: • Pourable wastes no longer pour when container inverted • Nonpourable wastes are scraped or otherwise removed • 5 gallons or smaller - destroyed and disposed • Larger than 5 gallons - reclaimed for scrap value, reconditioned, remanufactured, or refilled • Aerosols if completely discharged of contents and propellant

  40. Waste Classification Process Hazardous Waste Identification Listings

  41. Overview of hazardous waste classification • Is the material a waste? • Is the material excluded or exempted? • Is the waste excluded or exempted? • Is the waste listed in Article 4? • Is the waste listed in Appendix X? • Does the waste exhibit a characteristic of hazardous waste?

  42. Listed Hazardous Wastes 22 CCR Article 4 • A waste is compared to the wastes described in the list • The source of the waste (i.e., the process that generated the waste) is more important than the waste’s characteristics or constituents • must meet all conditions of the listing

  43. Three categories of lists 1. Non-specific sources (F) 2. Specific sources (K) 3. Discarded commercial chemical products, off-specification species, and spill residues (P, U)

  44. Overview of hazardous waste classification • Is the material a waste? • Is the material excluded or exempted? • Is the waste excluded or exempted? • Is the waste listed in Article 4? • Is the waste listed in Appendix X? • Does the waste exhibit a characteristic of hazardous waste?

  45. Appendix X • List of 791 chemicals • List of 66 common names or types of hazardous wastes • List creates a “presumption” • Wastes listed or containing a listed chemical are presumed hazardous • Can be classified as nonhazardous using testing or knowledge, as with other wastes

  46. Waste Classification Process Hazardous Waste Identification Characteristics

  47. Overview of hazardous waste classification • Is the material a waste? • Is the material excluded or exempted? • Is the waste excluded or exempted? • Is the waste listed in Article 4? • Is the waste listed in Appendix X? • Does the waste exhibit a characteristic of hazardous waste?

  48. Characteristics of Hazardous Wastes22 CCR Article 3 • Ignitability • Corrosivity • Reactivity • Toxicity

  49. Ignitability 22 CCR §66261.21 • Liquid with a flashpoint < 140°F (60°C) • Not a liquid and is capable, under STP, of causing fire through friction, absorption of moisture or spontaneous chemical changes and, when ignited, burns so vigorously and persistently that it creates a hazard • Ignitable compressed gas • Oxidizer

  50. Corrosivity 22 CCR §66261.22 • pH • Aqueous solution with a pH  2 or >12.5 • Not aqueous and, when mixed with an equal weight of water, has pH  2 or >12.5 (CA only)