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Chapter 3 ~ Chemical Reactions

Chapter 3 ~ Chemical Reactions

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Chapter 3 ~ Chemical Reactions

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  1. Chapter 3 ~ Chemical Reactions

  2. Balancing Combustion Reactions Write a balanced equation for the combustion of butane.

  3. Chemical Equilibrium

  4. Solution Terms • Solvent • Solute • Homogeneous mixture • Aqueous • Electrolyte (strong / weak) • Nonelectrolyte

  5. Solubility of Ionic Compounds in Water

  6. Exercise 3.4 ~ Predict the solubility of the following compounds: LiNO3 CaCl2 CuO NaC2H3O2

  7. List as many types of chemical reactions as you can. Give an example of each type of reaction

  8. Precipitation Reactions aka: Double Replacement Rxns Exercise 3.5 ~ Will precipitation reactions occur between: Sodium carbonate and copper (II) chloride Potassium carbonate and sodium nitrate Nickel(II) chloride and potassium hydroxide

  9. Writing Net Ionic Equations Exercise 3.6 Write balanced net ionic equations for: Aluminum chloride and sodium phosphate Iron(III) chloride and potassium hydroxide Lead(II) nitrate and potassium chloride

  10. Acid / Base Reactions Characteristics of Characteristics of Acids Bases

  11. HCl + Zn 

  12. Using the Activity Series Al + CuCl2 Cu + NaCl Zn + HCl Cu + HCl Ca + H2O

  13. Naming Acids Binary Acids Oxyacids

  14. Acids and Bases Definitions: Arrhenius Acid: an acid is a substance that ionizes in water to produce H+ or H3O+ ions HCl + H2O Arrhenius Base: a base produces OH-ions in water NaOH

  15. Bronsted-Lowry Acids and Bases Acid: a substance that donates a proton to any other substance Base: a substance that accepts a proton from another substance HNO3 + H2O NH4+ + H2O Fe(H2O)63+ + H2O NH3 + H2O

  16. Amphiprotic Substances Act as a Bronsted acid OR a Bronsted base HCO3 + H2O H3O+ + CO32- OR HCO3 + H2O H2CO3 + OH-

  17. Conjugate Acid-Base Pairs HCO3 + H2O H3O+ + CO32- Conjugate acid-base pairs differ by the presence of a _____________________________

  18. Ionization of Acids and Bases Strong Acids Weak Acids Diprotic and polyprotic acids Ionization of bases

  19. Common Acids and Bases

  20. Metal and Nonmetal Oxides • CO2 • SO2 • SO3 • NO2 • CaO • MgO

  21. Reactions of Strong Acids and Strong Bases HCl + NaOH HNO3 + NaOH H2SO4 + Ca(OH)2 Mg(OH)2 + HCl

  22. Reactions of Weak Acids • Acetic Acid and sodium hydroxide

  23. Gas Forming Reactions Acids + Carbonates Calcium carbonate + HCl Calcium carbonate + HC2H3O2 Acids + bicarbonates NaCO3 + HC4H5O6

  24. Gas Forming Reactions • Acids + sulfides Na2S + HCL

  25. Gas Forming Reactions • Acids + sulfites Na2SO3 + HCl • Ammonium salts + bases NH4Cl + NaOH

  26. Exercise 3.11 Write the equation for the reaction of barium carbonate and nitric acid Write a balanced equation for the reaction of ammonium sulfate and sodium hydroxide

  27. Driving Forces for Reactions • Precipitation Reactions • Gas forming reactions • Acid-base reactions • Oxidation-reduction reactions

  28. TEST TUBE WITH NAIL - • OBSERVATIONS: • EXPLANATIONS?????

  29. CuSO4 and NaCl combine:

  30. Activity Series: Fe, Cu

  31. Iron ions react with oxygen and water:

  32. New Concepts: Complex ion ~ Redox Reactions ~ Base Anhydride ~

  33. Oxidation Numbers • As opposed to valence number:

  34. Rules for Assigning Oxidation Numbers • Pure elements have oxidation numbers of 0 • Single element ions have oxidation numbers equal to their charges • F always an oxidation number = -1 • Cl, Br, I always = -1 except in compounds with O or F • H has an oxidation number of +1 unless it is a hydride ion (-1) • O has an oxidation number of -2 unless it is a peroxide (-1) or superoxide • Oxidation numbers of elements in polyatomic ions always = the charge of the ion • Oxidation numbers in compounds always add to 0.

  35. Determining Oxidation Numbers • Fe2O3 • CO32- • H2SO4 • NO21+

  36. Oxidation-Reduction Reactions Fe2O3(s) + 3CO(g) 2Fe(s) + 3CO2(g)

  37. Redox Reactions • Element oxidized • Element reduced • Oxidizing agent • Reducing agent

  38. Breathalyzer Reaction 3CH3CH2OH + 2Cr2O72- + 16 H3O+ 3CH3CO2H + 4 Cr3+ +27H2O

  39. 9 Oxidation States of N • NO31- NO2 • NH4 1+ N2H4 • NH2OH N2 • N2O NO • N2O3

  40. H2O2 + Blood

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