Article 4 Saydee Moran
Article no. 4 • Article 4 of the Constitution concerns the states. • Section 1: mandates that all states will honor the laws of all other states; this ensures, that for example, if a couple married in Florida is also considered married in Arizona, or that someone convicted of a crime in Virginia is considered guilty by Wyoming. • Section 2: Guarantees that citizens of one state be treated equally and fairly like all citizens of another. It also says that if a person accused of a crime in one other state flees to another, they will be returned to the state they fled from. This section also has a clause dealing with fugitive slaves that no longer applies. • Section 3: concerns the admittance of new states and the control of federal lands. • Section 4: Ensures a republican form of government (representative democracy” and both of which are opposed to a monarchical or aristocratic scheme- the states derives its power from the people, not from a king or gentry, and guarantees that the federal government will protect the states against invasion and insurrection.
Bullying should not be a teenage rite of passage • There are a rising number in teen suicides reported in the media is bringing national attention to issues of bullying, particularly bullying that is targeted towards individuals who are or are perceived to be gay or transgender. • Viewed by many Americans as a rite of passage for all young adults, but for many gay and transgender teens it’s a serious problem that increases their chance of dropping out of school, becoming homeless, using drugs, or attempting suicide. • Schools are supposed to be safe zones, where students can learn and grow. But it seems impossible for the gay and transgender youth at schools.
Bullying (cont’) • In 2009 National School Climate Survey by the Gay, Lesbian and Straight Education Network (GLSEN), a national education organization focused on ensuring safe school for students- provided discouraging data: • Of the gay and transgender middle school & high school students surveyed 9 out of 10 have experienced harassment at school in the past year. • Nearly 2/3rds of them have skipped at least one day of school due to concerns about their safety. • 61% of students have felt unsafe at school because of their sexual orientation, while 39% have felt unsafe because of their gender expression.
Bullying & article 4 (cont’) • Due to the lack of federal laws that prohibit the bullying of gay an transgender youth, states have been left to develop anti-bullying laws and regulations on their own. • This means there are a diverse number of anti-bullying approaches across the country. • Currently 45 states have some form of legislation in place that provides protection for students from bullying. • 4 States- Michigan, Montana, North Dakota and South Dakota- have no anti-bullying laws or regulations at this time. • 45 States that do have anti-bullying protections, 22 do not enumerate specific personal characteristics that are covered: race, religion, sexual orientation.
Bullying & article 4 (cont’) • While the 22 states lack categories of enumeration, 2 states (Florida and Georgia) specifically try to make sure students who are bullied or do the bullying have access to appropriate support services. • Beyond the laws cited, several states have regulations or ethical codes of conduct for teachers that address student discrimination, harassment, and/or bullying. • The ethical codes are in place in D.C ,Hawaii, New Mexico, Pennsylvania, and Utah. • While some states provide stronger protections than those whose laws don’t enumerate categories of protection or simply have regulations, they don’t protect transgender or gender nonconforming students. • Only 14 states have anti-bullying laws that do offer bullying protection on the basis of gender identity and sexual orientation.
Bullying & article 4 (cont’) • New Jersey’s new law includes an Anti-Bullying Bill of Rights, which eliminates some of the loopholes and vagueness that plague other states’ anti-bullying laws. • The laws include: • Firm and clear state-wide deadlines for reporting and investigating incidents of bullying • Strengthened suicide-prevention training for teachers • Notification of parents of all students involved in a bullying incident along with the offer of counseling and intervention services • The establishment of anti-bullying teams at each school, led by a designated anti-bullying specialist
Cited Sources: • http://www.americanprogress.org/issues/2011/02/antigay_bullying.html • http://www.usconstitution.net/constquick.html