Turkey Link to syllabus Link to WDI Link to Encyclopedia of the Orient
Orhan Pamuk and Sevket Pamuk Link to text version Link to Orhan Pamuk
Link to Map of Ottoman Empire Via Encyclopedia of the Orient
Turkish 1,216 British 13 Greek 4,002 French &Belgian 10 Armenian 28 German & Austrian 8 Jewish 21 American 2 Number of Industrial Establishments in Izmir (Smyrna) by Nationality of Ownership, 1920 Source: Keyder, in Quataert (1994) Manufacturing in the Ottoman Empire and Turkey, 1500-1950
View of the Bosphorus, and Dolmabache Palace Source: Cizgen, Photography in the Ottoman Empire page 165
A Street in Istanbul, ~1870 Source: Cizgen, Photography in the Ottoman Empire page 164
Knife Sharpener, Istanbul ~1865 Source: Cizgen, Photography in the Ottoman Empire page 181
Egg Seller, Istanbul ~1865 Source: Cizgen, Photography in the Ottoman Empire page 99
Palanquin, Istanbul ~1860 Source: Cizgen, Photography in the Ottoman Empire page 184
Haci Bekir-store selling “Turkish Delight” Istanbul ~1890 Source: Cizgen, Photography in the Ottoman Empire page 98
Ritual Ablution at the Suleymaniye Mosque, ~1900 Source: Cizgen, Photography in the Ottoman Empire page 178
Istanbul: Galata Bridge 1890 Source: Cizgen, Photography in the Ottoman Empire page 19
Abdulhammid II 1842-1918 Ruled 1876-1909 Started out as a reformer, but grew more opposed to change. Described as an autocrat who seldom left the palace. Approved a Constitution in 1877, suspended it in 1878. Sultan who was forced from office by the “Young Turks.”
Mustafa Kamal Atatürk 1881-1938. Born in area now called Greece Family was middle class; father was a timber merchant. Went to military schools. Vital role against British in Gallipoli campaign. 1920 sets up government in Ankara. By 1926 he has abolished rivals. 1934 National Assembly bestows on him title of Ataturk (Father of the Turks) Late 1930s strengthens ties to Britain and France, against Germany and Italy. After his death, Ismet Inonu becomes pres., until 1950.
Atatürk’s Program • Regulations that hindered the use of central elements • in the Oriental (i.e. non-European) clothing style, • Introduction of Latin alphabet, • Reduction of the centrality of Islam in Turkish public life, • Equality of all citizens regardless of religion, • Emancipation of women and mass education • The political system had elements from Western democracy, • but it was essentially a one-party system.Intended characteristics of the new Turkey: • Republicanism • Nationalism • Populism • Statism (State control over the basic means of production, • where the banks were used as the administrative body) • Secularism • Revolutionism
Atatürk’s legacy Military and Politics Military was guarantor of the unity of the country in the 1920s under Ataturk, and continues to support his nationalist, etatist, secular program. The military is not viewed as excessively enriching itself in the role of ultimate guarantor, as indicated by public support of its actions. Military coups in 1960, 1971, 1980, 1997. That of 1960 led to the death of the Prime Minister (Menderes). In 1980 there was political unrest due to economic problems, ineffective political parties. In 1997 the action was taken against Erbakan, deemed to be too Islamic.
Suleyman Demirel Born: 1924, into a peasant family. P.M. 1965-1971, late 1970s, 1991-2 President 1993 - 2000 Studied engineering. Supported NATO but opposed EU. Forced to resign by military, who were worried about terrorism.
Turgut Ozal 1927-1993 P.M. 1983-89 President 1989-93 Father was teacher of Islam. Studied mechanical engin., worked at World Bank Protégé of Demirel Pushed for opening up and westernizing the economy. However, there was much inflation and unemployment
Tansu Ciller Born 1946 P.M. 1993-1996 Ph.D. from U. of Conneticut, where she worked as a researcher. Driven out of office over questions of corruption
Necmettin Erbakan Born: 1926 P.M. 1996-97 Professor of Physics, who lived and studied in Germany for many years. Leader of Welfare Party. Sometimes described as an Islamist and a populist. Was forced to resign by pressure from military. Supports entry into EU.
Recep Tayyip Erdogan Born: 1954 P.M. March 2003- Born in a town in northern Turkey, into a lower middle class family. Previously mayor of Istanbul, where he had a reputation for honesty. Knows no foreign language, and little economics. 1998: convicted of inciting religious hatred; his acceptability as P.M. was not guaranteed. Said to be charismatic leader. Pushing for entrance to EU.
Abdullah Gul, 1950- Born in central Turkey to working class parents. Studied at Istanbul U. Has worked in U.K., speaks decent English. Currently President, and worries many secularists. Has been Foreign Minister and Prime Minister. Takes secondary role to Erdogan in the AKP. Click for interview on EuroNews July, 2006
Alcohol ban Source : Hurriyet Daily News and Economic Report: October 4, 2009.
Other Economic Items Most of Turkey’s exports are manufactured goods Large numbers of Turks migrated to Germany and other western European countries as guest workers. Custom’s Union with European Union in 1995 Free Trade Agreement with Israel in 1996. Limited FTA’s with Morocco and Syria in 2004. Turkey is major intermediary for trade in hydrocarbons.
Born around 1950, to a peasant family in a small village in southern Turkey. Studied political science at Ankara U. Founder of Kurdish Workers’ Party, PKK. Captured by Turkish Intelligence (in Kenya) in 1999. Death sentence commuted to life. The PKK is blamed for ~30,000 deaths since early 1980s. Abdullah Ocalan
Kurdish language in Turkey In Turkey in 1938, Kurdish was banned; any public usage was sanctioned and an individual using Kurdish in public could be fined. During this time Kurdish lost ground, bilingualism increased, and very few learned to read or write their language. In 1961, with a new Turkish constitution, Kurdish publications began to appear, often bilingual, but frequently banned as soon as they appeared. Moreover, since 1967 through the late 80s there was a hardening of attitude and a series of laws were promulgated which are intended to repress the use of Kurdish. In 1991, however, the Turkish government declared its intention to legalize the use of Kurdish, and this happened, gradually. Kurds in Turkey who no longer speak their language nevertheless symbolically regard it as proof of their ethnic identity. Source: http://www.lmp.ucla.edu/profiles/profk04.htm
Turkey: Real Wages, 1850-1990 Source: Pamuk 1995 “Long term trends in urban wages in Turkey, 1850-1990,” in Schulliers and Zamagni
Turkey: Income Distribution Source: Hansen, page 276
Turkey: Distribution of Land Holdings Source: Hansen page 278
Turkey: Income levels, by region Source: Hansen page 277
Turkey: Regional GDP/Cap, 1987 Source: Senesen in The Ravages of Neo-Liberalism, page 122
Turkey: Regional GDP/Cap, 1996 Source: Senesen in The Ravages of Neo-Liberalism, page 122
Turkey Inflation and its Proximate Causes TurkeyDeficit.xls
Annual CPI and Target Turkey: Inflation during 2004 2002 2003 2004 2005 Target 35 20 12 8 Realized 30 18 9 ?