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Predicting the Charge. Since you canâ€™t tell from the Periodic Table what the charge is on a transition metal ion, you need to determine this from the chemical formula How can you determine the charge on the cobalt ion in CoCl 2 ? What is the charge on the Manganese ion in MnO 2 ?
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Predicting the Charge • Since you can’t tell from the Periodic Table what the charge is on a transition metal ion, you need to determine this from the chemical formula • How can you determine the charge on the cobalt ion in CoCl2 ? • What is the charge on the Manganese ion in MnO2 ? • What about Copper in CuCO3 ?
Naming Transition Metal Compounds • Write the name of the metal • In parentheses, write the charge on the ion in roman numerals • Write the name of the anionCrCl3 is named Chromium (III) chloride
Practice • Name the following compounds: • CoBr2 PbCl4 Fe(NO3)3 CuSO4 • Cobalt (II) bromide • Lead (IV) chloride • Iron (III) nitrate • Copper (II) sulfate
The Truth about Electrons:Explaining Transition Metal Behaviors • We have been using the Bohr Model of the atom showing electrons in “energy shells”. • Newer evidence shows that, while there are energy levels, the space electrons actually occupy is more complex. • Each energy level contains “suborbitals”
Suborbitals • The suborbitals that electrons inhabit take strange shaps, and have the names, s, p, d and f
The First Energy Level • The two electrons in the first shell inhabit a sphere-shaped s orbital. Because it is t the first energy level it is called the 1s orbital.
The Second energy level: The 2s orbital • As you know, this energy shell can hold 8 electrons. These are divided, in pairs, into 4 different suborbitals. Two inhabit a larger sphere-shaped 2s orbital.
The Second energy level: The 2p orbitals • There are three of these barbell-shaped orbitals. Each one can hold up to 2 electrons, for a maximum of 6 electrons in the 2p orbitals.
The Third Energy Level:3s and 3p orbitals At the third energy level, there are a 3s and three 3p orbitals, larger and outside the inner ones.
The Transition Metal Trick • At energy level 4, one 4s orbital is filled. • THEN, before filling the 4p orbitals, ten more electrons sneak in at energy level 3. They occupy five 3d orbitals. • Only after the 3d orbitals are filled are the 4p orbitals occupied.
Filling Electron Shells It’s the d orbitals that make the transition metal electrons more complex. They pack in 5x2 = 10 more electrons.
The f-block But it doesn’t stop there. The Lanthanides and Actinides have their own set of 7 orbitals, packing in another 14 electrons each.
f orbitals • Just for fun. ;-)