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Transport Layer

Transport Layer

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Transport Layer

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  1. Transport-layer services Multiplexing and demultiplexing Connectionless transport: UDP Principles of reliable data transfer Connection-oriented transport: TCP segment structure reliable data transfer flow control connection management Principles of congestion control TCP congestion control Transport Layer Transport Layer

  2. network layer: logical communication between hosts transport layer: logical communication between processes relies on, enhances, network layer services Household analogy: 12 kids sending letters to 12 kids processes = kids app messages = letters in envelopes hosts = houses transport protocol = Ann and Bill network-layer protocol = postal service Transport vs. network layer Transport Layer

  3. reliable, in-order delivery (TCP) congestion control flow control connection setup unreliable, unordered delivery: UDP no-frills extension of “best-effort” IP services not available: delay guarantees bandwidth guarantees application transport network data link physical application transport network data link physical network data link physical network data link physical network data link physical network data link physical network data link physical logical end-end transport Internet transport-layer protocols Transport Layer

  4. Transport-layer services Multiplexing and demultiplexing Connectionless transport: UDP Principles of reliable data transfer Connection-oriented transport: TCP segment structure reliable data transfer flow control connection management Principles of congestion control TCP congestion control Transport Layer Transport Layer

  5. delivering received segments to correct socket gathering data from multiple sockets, enveloping data with header (later used for demultiplexing) application application application transport transport transport P1 P3 P2 P1 P4 network network network link link link physical physical physical Multiplexing at send host: Demultiplexing at rcv host: host 3 host 2 host 1 Multiplexing/demultiplexing = socket = process Transport Layer

  6. host receives IP datagrams each datagram has sourceIP address, destination IP address each datagram carries 1 transport-layer segment each segment has source, destination port number host uses IP addresses & port numbers to direct segment to appropriate socket 32 bits source port # dest port # other header fields application data (message) TCP/UDP segment format How demultiplexing works Transport Layer

  7. Create sockets with port numbers: DatagramSocket mySocket1 = new DatagramSocket(99111); DatagramSocket mySocket2 = new DatagramSocket(99222); UDP socket identified by two-tuple: (dest IP address, dest port number) When host receives UDP segment: checks destination port number in segment directs UDP segment to socket with that port number IP datagrams with different source IP addresses and/or source port numbers directed to same socket Connectionless demultiplexing Transport Layer

  8. SP: 9157 P3 P2 P1 P1 DP: 6428 SP: 6428 SP: 6428 SP: 5775 DP: 5775 DP: 6428 DP: 9157 Connectionless demux (cont) DatagramSocket serverSocket = new DatagramSocket(6428); client IP: A Client IP:B server IP: C SP provides “return address” Transport Layer

  9. TCP socket identified by 4-tuple: source IP address source port number dest IP address dest port number recv host uses all four values to direct segment to appropriate socket Server host may support many simultaneous TCP sockets: each socket identified by its own 4-tuple Web servers have different sockets for each connecting client non-persistent HTTP will have different socket for each request Connection-oriented demux Transport Layer

  10. S-IP: B D-IP:C SP: 9157 SP: 5775 SP: 9157 P1 P1 P2 P4 P5 P6 P3 DP: 80 DP: 80 DP: 80 S-IP: A S-IP: B D-IP:C D-IP:C Connection-oriented demux (cont) client IP: A Client IP:B server IP: C Transport Layer

  11. S-IP: B D-IP:C SP: 9157 SP: 5775 SP: 9157 P1 P1 P2 P3 DP: 80 DP: 80 DP: 80 S-IP: A S-IP: B D-IP:C D-IP:C Connection-oriented demux: Threaded Web Server P4 client IP: A Client IP:B server IP: C Transport Layer

  12. Transport-layer services Multiplexing and demultiplexing Connectionless transport: UDP Principles of reliable data transfer Connection-oriented transport: TCP segment structure reliable data transfer flow control connection management Principles of congestion control TCP congestion control Transport Layer Transport Layer

  13. “no frills,” “bare bones” Internet transport protocol “best effort” service, UDP segments may be: lost delivered out of order to app connectionless: no handshaking between UDP sender, receiver each UDP segment handled independently of others Why is there a UDP? no connection establishment (which can add delay) simple: no connection state at sender, receiver small segment header no congestion control: UDP can blast away as fast as desired UDP: User Datagram Protocol [RFC 768] Transport Layer

  14. often used for streaming multimedia apps loss tolerant rate sensitive other UDP uses DNS (port 53) SNMP (port 161/162) reliable transfer over UDP: add reliability at application layer application-specific error recovery! 32 bits source port # dest port # Length, in bytes of UDP segment, including header checksum length Application data (message) UDP segment format UDP: more Transport Layer

  15. Sender: treat segment contents as sequence of 16-bit integers checksum: addition (1’s complement sum) of segment contents sender puts checksum value into UDP checksum field Receiver: compute checksum of received segment check if computed checksum equals checksum field value: NO - error detected YES - no error detected. But maybe errors nonetheless? More later …. UDP checksum Goal: detect “errors” (e.g., flipped bits) in transmitted segment Transport Layer

  16. Internet Checksum Example • Note • When adding numbers, a carryout from the most significant bit needs to be added to the result • Example: add two 16-bit integers 1 1 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 1 1 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 1 1 0 1 1 1 0 1 1 1 0 1 1 1 0 1 1 1 1 0 1 1 1 0 1 1 1 0 1 1 1 1 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 1 wraparound sum checksum Transport Layer

  17. Transport-layer services Multiplexing and demultiplexing Connectionless transport: UDP Principles of reliable data transfer Connection-oriented transport: TCP segment structure reliable data transfer flow control connection management Principles of congestion control TCP congestion control Transport Layer Transport Layer

  18. Reliable Data Transfer in action Transport Layer

  19. Reliable Data Transfer in action Transport Layer

  20. rdt: stop-and-wait operation sender receiver first packet bit transmitted, t = 0 last packet bit transmitted, t = L / R first packet bit arrives RTT last packet bit arrives, send ACK ACK arrives, send next packet, t = RTT + L / R Transport Layer

  21. Pipelining: sender allows multiple, “in-flight”, yet-to-be-acknowledged pkts range of sequence numbers must be increased buffering at sender and/or receiver Two generic forms of pipelined protocols: go-Back-N, selective repeat Pipelined protocols Transport Layer

  22. Pipelining: increased utilization sender receiver first packet bit transmitted, t = 0 last bit transmitted, t = L / R first packet bit arrives RTT last packet bit arrives, send ACK last bit of 2nd packet arrives, send ACK last bit of 3rd packet arrives, send ACK ACK arrives, send next packet, t = RTT + L / R Increase utilization by a factor of 3! Transport Layer

  23. Sender: k-bit seq # in pkt header “window” of up to N, consecutive unack’ed pkts allowed (N2k-1) Go-Back-N • ACK(n): ACKs all pkts up to, including seq # n - “cumulative ACK” • may receive duplicate ACKs (see receiver) • timer for each in-flight pkt • timeout(n):retransmit pkt n and all higher seq # pkts in window Transport Layer

  24. GBN inaction Transport Layer

  25. receiver individually acknowledges all correctly received pkts buffers pkts, as needed, for eventual in-order delivery to upper layer sender only resends pkts for which ACK not received sender timer for each unACKed pkt sender window (N2k-1) N consecutive seq #’s again limits seq #s of sent, unACKed pkts Selective Repeat Transport Layer

  26. Selective repeat: sender, receiver windows Transport Layer

  27. data from above : if next available seq # in window, send pkt timeout(n): resend pkt n, restart timer ACK(n) in [sendbase,sendbase+N]: mark pkt n as received if n smallest unACKed pkt, advance window base to next unACKed seq # receiver sender Selective repeat pkt n in [rcvbase, rcvbase+N-1] • send ACK(n) • out-of-order: buffer • in-order: deliver (also deliver buffered, in-order pkts), advance window to next not-yet-received pkt pkt n in [rcvbase-N,rcvbase-1] • ACK(n) otherwise: • ignore Transport Layer

  28. Selective repeat in action Transport Layer

  29. Example: seq #’s: 0, 1, 2, 3 window size=3 receiver sees no difference in two scenarios! incorrectly passes duplicate data as new in (a) Q: what relationship between seq # size and window size? Selective repeat: dilemma Ans: N2k-1 Transport Layer

  30. Transport-layer services Multiplexing and demultiplexing Connectionless transport: UDP Principles of reliable data transfer Connection-oriented transport: TCP segment structure reliable data transfer flow control connection management Principles of congestion control TCP congestion control Transport Layer Transport Layer

  31. full duplex data: bi-directional data flow in same connection MSS: maximum segment size connection-oriented: handshaking (exchange of control msgs) init’s sender, receiver state before data exchange flow controlled: sender will not overwhelm receiver point-to-point: one sender, one receiver reliable, in-order byte steam: no “message boundaries” pipelined: TCP congestion and flow control set window size send & receive buffers TCP: OverviewRFCs: 793, 1122, 1323, 2018, 2581 Transport Layer

  32. 32 bits URG: urgent data (generally not used) counting by bytes of data (not segments!) source port # dest port # sequence number ACK: ACK # valid acknowledgement number head len not used Receive window U A P R S F PSH: push data now (generally not used) # bytes rcvr willing to accept checksum Urg data pnter Options (variable length) RST, SYN, FIN: connection estab (setup, teardown commands) application data (variable length) Internet checksum (as in UDP) TCP segment structure Transport Layer

  33. Seq. #’s: byte stream “number” of first byte in segment’s data ACKs: seq # of next byte expected from other side cumulative ACK Q: how receiver handles out-of-order segments A: TCP spec doesn’t say, - up to implementor Seq=42, ACK=79, data = ‘C’ Seq=79, ACK=43, data = ‘C’ Seq=43, ACK=80 time TCP seq. #’s and ACKs Host B Host A User types ‘C’ host ACKs receipt of ‘C’, echoes back ‘C’ host ACKs receipt of echoed ‘C’ simple telnet scenario Transport Layer

  34. Transport-layer services Multiplexing and demultiplexing Connectionless transport: UDP Principles of reliable data transfer Connection-oriented transport: TCP segment structure reliable data transfer flow control connection management Principles of congestion control TCP congestion control Transport Layer Transport Layer

  35. TCP creates rdt service on top of IP’s unreliable service Pipelined segments Cumulative acks TCP uses single retransmission timer Retransmissions are triggered by: timeout events duplicate acks Initially consider simplified TCP sender: ignore duplicate acks ignore flow control, congestion control TCP reliable data transfer Transport Layer

  36. data rcvd from app: Create segment with seq # seq # is byte-stream number of first data byte in segment start timer if not already running (think of timer as for oldest unacked segment) expiration interval: TimeOutInterval timeout: retransmit segment that caused timeout restart timer Ack rcvd: If acknowledges previously unacked segments update what is known to be acked start timer if there are outstanding segments TCP sender events: Transport Layer

  37. Host A Host B Host A Host B Seq=92, 8 bytes data Seq=92, 8 bytes data Seq=100, 20 bytes data ACK=100 Seq=92 timeout timeout X ACK=100 ACK=120 loss Seq=92, 8 bytes data Sendbase = 100 Seq=92, 8 bytes data SendBase = 120 ACK=120 Seq=92 timeout ACK=100 SendBase = 120 time premature timeout time lost ACK scenario TCP: retransmission scenarios SendBase = 100 Transport Layer

  38. Host A Host B Seq=92, 8 bytes data ACK=100 Seq=100, 20 bytes data timeout X loss ACK=120 time Cumulative ACK scenario TCP retransmission scenarios (more) SendBase = 120 Transport Layer

  39. Time-out period often relatively long: long delay before resending lost packet Detect lost segments via duplicate ACKs. Sender often sends many segments back-to-back If segment is lost, there will likely be many duplicate ACKs. If sender receives 3 ACKs for the same data, it supposes that segment after ACKed data was lost: fast retransmit:resend segment before timer expires Fast Retransmit Transport Layer

  40. Transport-layer services Multiplexing and demultiplexing Connectionless transport: UDP Principles of reliable data transfer Connection-oriented transport: TCP segment structure reliable data transfer flow control connection management Principles of congestion control TCP congestion control Transport Layer Transport Layer

  41. (Suppose TCP receiver discards out-of-order segments) spare room in buffer = RcvWindow = RcvBuffer-[LastByteRcvd - LastByteRead] Rcvr advertises spare room by including value of RcvWindow in segments Sender limits unACKed data to RcvWindow guarantees receive buffer doesn’t overflow TCP Flow control: how it works Transport Layer

  42. Transport-layer services Multiplexing and demultiplexing Connectionless transport: UDP Principles of reliable data transfer Connection-oriented transport: TCP segment structure reliable data transfer flow control connection management Principles of congestion control TCP congestion control Transport Layer Transport Layer

  43. Recall:TCP sender, receiver establish “connection” before exchanging data segments initialize TCP variables: seq. #s buffers, flow control info (e.g. RcvWindow) client: connection initiator Socket clientSocket = new Socket("hostname","port number"); server: contacted by client Socket connectionSocket = welcomeSocket.accept(); Three way handshake: Step 1:client host sends TCP SYN segment to server specifies initial seq # no data Step 2:server host receives SYN, replies with SYNACK segment server allocates buffers specifies server initial seq. # Step 3: client receives SYNACK, replies with ACK segment, which may contain data TCP Connection Management Transport Layer

  44. Closing a connection: client closes socket:clientSocket.close(); Step 1:client end system sends TCP FIN control segment to server Step 2:server receives FIN, replies with ACK. Closes connection, sends FIN. client server close FIN ACK close FIN ACK timed wait closed TCP Connection Management (cont.) Transport Layer

  45. Step 3:client receives FIN, replies with ACK. Enters “timed wait” - will respond with ACK to received FINs Step 4:server, receives ACK. Connection closed. Note:with small modification, can handle simultaneous FINs. TCP Connection Management (cont.) client server closing FIN ACK closing FIN ACK timed wait closed closed Transport Layer

  46. Transport-layer services Multiplexing and demultiplexing Connectionless transport: UDP Principles of reliable data transfer Connection-oriented transport: TCP segment structure reliable data transfer flow control connection management Principles of congestion control TCP congestion control Transport Layer Transport Layer

  47. Congestion: informally: “too many sources sending too much data too fast for network to handle” different from flow control! manifestations: lost packets (buffer overflow at routers) long delays (queueing in router buffers) a top-10 problem! Principles of Congestion Control Transport Layer

  48. End-end congestion control: no explicit feedback from network congestion inferred from end-system observed loss, delay approach taken by TCP Network-assisted congestion control: routers provide feedback to end systems single bit indicating congestion (SNA, DECbit, TCP/IP ECN, ATM) explicit rate sender should send at Approaches towards congestion control Two broad approaches towards congestion control: Transport Layer

  49. Transport-layer services Multiplexing and demultiplexing Connectionless transport: UDP Principles of reliable data transfer Connection-oriented transport: TCP segment structure reliable data transfer flow control connection management Principles of congestion control TCP congestion control Transport Layer Transport Layer

  50. end-end control (no network assistance) sender limits transmission: LastByteSent-LastByteAcked  CongWin Roughly, CongWin is dynamic, function of perceived network congestion How does sender perceive congestion? loss event = timeout or 3 duplicate acks TCP sender reduces rate (CongWin) after loss event three mechanisms: AIMD slow start conservative after timeout events CongWin rate = Bytes/sec RTT TCP Congestion Control Transport Layer