KOBE EARTHQUAKE REPORT By Kimberley Stimson 9E
Contents! • Introduction • Why do earthquakes occur? • Map of Plates. • Tectonic setting! • Where is Kobe? • What is Kobe like? • Possible and actual effects. • Why were some areas more damaged than others? • How did the residents respond? • Survival kits • Living with earthquakes. • How could the impacts of earthquakes be reduced? • Conclusion • Bibliography • Pictures
Introduction • In this presentation, there will be information on Kobe earthquake, and how to prevent there being such a big impact in the future. • Kobe earthquake happened at 5:46 am (local time), January 17th 1995. • Its epicentre was in Awaji Island, very close to the densely populated areas. • The earthquake lasted just 20 seconds, but this short time left tragedy.
Why do Earthquakes occur? • Most Earthquakes are caused by Plate Tectonics. • They can occur due to four different actions of plates; • Destructive margins, Collision margins, Constructive margins and Conservative margins. • The one that affects Kobe area is the Destructive margin, this is when 2 plates move towards each other. • As one plate is heavier than the other, that plate is forced downwards. • As it does so, pressure increases, which can cause extremely violent earthquakes. At the same time, the heat caused by the friction turns the plate going downwards into magma.
Where is Kobe? • Kobe issituated on the coast of Osaka Bay, Japan. • To the South of the Rokko Mountains. • West of theOsaka Plain. • Kobe isabout 300 miles from Tokyo. • The area has a complicated geology, full of faults and folds. • The major faults are Gosukebashi fault, The Ashiya fault, and the Koyo fault.
What is Kobe like? • Kobe is a small, historic city, with few tall buildings, it has a congested centre. • There are very wealthy areas such as Sannomiya, and very poor parts, like Nagata Ward. • There are old and new wooden houses, concrete buildings and steel-framed buildings. • There are about 9000 manufacturing industries.
People: 5,466 dead, 2 missing,36,820 injured Houses: 100,026 destroyed, 85,957 severely damaged, 37,826 partially damaged 549 public buildings damaged 3,115 other buildings damaged 1,200,000 houses with no water 1,000,000 houses with no electricity 857,000 houses with no gas 285,000 phone lines not working Possible and actual effects
Possible and actual effects • 130 km of railway network closed • Shinkansen Express cut off between Shinoska and Himeji • Two artery lines partly closed • Hanshin Expressway closed • Meishin Expressway partially closed • 27 roads damaged • Damage to ports at Kobe and Ashiya Normally the effects wouldn’t be so bad, but because Kobe residents weren’t expecting it, and the town was not prepared, there was not much hope.
Why were some areas more damaged than others? • There was more damage in some areas because in some towns, the buildings were made of wood • Not only did this make the buildings collapse easily, they also caused major fires • In other areas, they were prepared for Earthquakes, which occur quite often some parts of Japan. • There were well-built roads and houses, with residents that were prepared, this meant that less damage was made. • Those that weren’t expecting a Earthquake were devastated, but those that were ready for it were mostly OK, even though the Earthquake had roughly the same force in both places
How did the residents respond? • The residents of Kobe faced problems like trying to get food, water and blankets to protect themselves from the cold. • Few people had gas, electricity or telephone service. • But many years of Earthquake practice meant people knew how to cope • The government immediately activated the Disaster Relief Law, and rescue activities were arranged.
How did the residents respond? • Thousands of rescue workers were sent out, as well as many forms of emergency transport. • Evacuation centres were set up and hotels were used as temporary lodgings. • On January the 18th, the Self Defence forces prepared 80000 meals, another 15million meals were received through the food agency of the Ministry of Agriculture.
Survival kits • Each house in earthquake affected areas has a survival kit. If someone gets trapped in the house, then there are a few things to keep them alive for a few days, until they are rescued. The things in a survival kit are: • Food and drink • Toilet replacement bags • A Swiss army knife • A first aid kit • Gloves, masks and safety goggles • A torch and spare batteries • A pack of cards, a little radio
Living with Earthquakes • Japan is often having Earthquakes, and always will have them • This is because it is situated right where two Plates meet • The people who live in Japan have to just get on with their lives and be ready for any Earthquake that might hit • They build the houses so that they won’t collapse very easily if there is an Earthquake • But they just live with it, or they move to a different part of the world • But not all of Japan is as prepared as this, as they do not get Earthquakes so often, but if there is one, then there’s trouble
How could the impacts of Earthquakes be reduced? • The Government paying a bit more towards the improvement of the quality of buildings, because that would mean that most buildings would be more likely to withstand the force of the earthquakes • Towns having more earthquake drills to make sure residents have plenty of practice, hopefully this will make them more calm in a real quake too • If towns are not built on an area where two plates meet, there will still be an earthquake but there will be nothing there for nature to destroy. • But we will never stop earthquakes altogether, no matter how much we know about them, so it’s best that you get a well-built house and just live with it, or move somewhere else
Conclusion • Kobe Earthquake killed thousands of people, and this is because the town was not prepared enough. • The fault was not known of, and as Kobe and it’s residents did not expect an earthquake, obviously, everything went wrong. • I think the town of Kobe will have learnt a valuable lesson and will be prepared in the future. • Many lives could have been saved if the buildings were stronger and the residents were more equipped.
Bibliography • Internet • Books • Encarta • Videos • Sheets