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Life in New France

Life in New France

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Life in New France

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  1. Life in New France by grade 6T students next

  2. French – Native Relationships By Erik By Goran By Alison By Bray By James Samuel de Champlain By Edwin By Jon H By Jon W By Liane By Nathanael Jean Talon By Gabrielle By Goran By Nic Madeleine de Vercheres By Erik By Ruth Bishop Laval By Lynn By Stephanie N By Hailey By Alex Seigneurial System By Jon W By Alyssa By James By Stephanie N By Venico By Olga By Steven Fur Trade By Alex By Adam By Bray By Jon H By Liane By Nathanael By Justin By Nic Etienne Brule By Dietrich Jacques Cartier By Matthew The Fall of New France By Dietrich Lifestyles in New France By Stephanie C By Adam By Alyssa By Gabrielle By Hailey By Matthew By Ruth By Alison By Edwin By Justin By Stephanie C By Venico By Daniel By Lynn By Steven click on a name to read an article right arrow > to advance left arrow < to go back one Life in New France Table of Contents

  3. Etienne Brule Etienne Brule was born in the year of 1592 in Chamingy near Paris. He arrived in Quebec in the year of 1608 with one of his closest European friends Nicolas Marsolet. He began living with the Huron because Champlain told him so. Brule was a man that wanted to discover, and that led him to be the first European to see lake Superior, lake Huron, and lake Erie. He also went to discover areas along the Susquehanna river. He also went to search the copper mines the Indians told him about. When Quebec fell to English hands in !629 Brule fled to his Huron friends. After Henrietta de France was married to the English king Charles I England gave back Quebec but no new settlers where allowed to go to new France except the Jesuit Priests, while Etienne was in the Huron Country being good Friends with them. next

  4. When the Huron found out that Etienne left Champlain they killed him in a dispute. Brule was the fist man to discover present day Pennsylvania. EtienneBrule was no good Man that you can rely on because when he went to Huronia he worked half for the English and Half for the French.After Quebec was took in by the English in 1629 Champlain suspects that Etienne led the English to the mouth of the St. Lawrence. After his betrayal the Huron Indians killed him. This is what Champlain said “I will not seek justice for a death of a Traitor”. Brule was not a responsible guy because he only thought of adventure. By: Dietrich Neufeld back to Contents

  5. The Story of Cartier by Matthew The king of France sent Jacques Cartier to find a route to the east in 1534. Twenty days after Cartier left St.Malo he sighted Newfoundland. He entered what is now called the Gulf of St.Lawrence. He then turned south exploring all the bays that might lead west. Cartier found nothing so he went north again. On the Gaspe peninsula, he and his crew built a 10m high cross with a shield saying “Vive le Roi de France” and three fleurs-de-lis. Cartier did not bring any gold or silver home with him. Nor did he discover the way through America to China and Japan. But he did bring the two young Indians and stories of the fish and the forest. That was enough to make the king of France happy and send Cartier again. On his second voyage, Cartier took three ships and 110 men. Later on Cartier reached the village of Stadacona and returned the two Indians to their father. next

  6. The Indians told Cartier about a village further up the river called Hochelaga. They also told him the river he was following “goes so far no man has never been to the end” Later on Cartier climbed a hill ha named Mount Real (Royal Mountain) so he could see along the river.He realized he could not follow this river sense it was so skinny and returned to Stadacona to prepare for winter. During winter, illness came over all of them. Men suffered with bleeding gums, swelling in their legs, arms, and high fever.. The natives showed Cartier the cure for the strange disease called scurvy. But many died. The next spring he left for home. back to Contents

  7. Samuel de Champlain Champlain was a important person in New France. He played a big roll in building the colony in 1608. The colony it self wasn’t big, and the population wasn’t big either. That meant that the defense of the settlement wasn’t very strong. In 1608 there were only twenty-eight men at the colony. By 1609, fourteen of the men died of scurvy and other strange diseases. However, more French arrived at Quebec that spring. Both the French and the English wanted to get as much furs as possible. The French set up a trading partnership with the Huron and Algonquin. Champlain married Helene Bouelle, a twelve year old girl when he was forty-three. He married in 1610 in France. In 1620 Helene came to Quebec. Taught the Indians, who loved her for her beauty and kindness. But she found life too lonely in Quebec. In 1624 she returned to France because of homesickness and stayed there forever. Some of Champlain’s wishes came true. People came from France and started farms along the river banks. by Edwin next

  8. The first person interested in farming the land rather than trading for furs,Louis Hebert was New France’s first real settler. An apothecary, or druggist, by trade, was hired by the fur-trading company which controlled the St. Lawrence region in 1617. For the next ten years he cared for the sick of the colony, both French and Indian, And tilled his soil by hand in his spare time. Some of Champlain’s wishes didn’t come true. The first French colony and the first English colony in North America were built at about the same time.But, hundred fifty years later, more than 2 000 000 people lived in the English colonies. Only 60 000 people lived in the French colonies. The French colonies would always need help and support from France. The English colonies could survive on their own. And when the time came for war between France and Britain, it would be the British who would win. Champlain’s hope of French colonies would be over. By:Edwin Prochorow next

  9. back to Contents

  10. Samuel de Champlain by Jonathon H The first year Samuel de Champlain came to Canada was in 1603 when he went to the settlement of Taddoussac. The next year he came back and attempted to start a settlement at St. Croix. Over winter many of his men died of scurvy. By spring 35 of his 79 men had died. In spring they sailed across the Bay of Fundy and started a settlement called Port Royal later called Acadia. Again during the winter many of his men died of scurvy and they were forced to return to France. But Champlain was determined to start a settlement. In 1608 he returned to Canada. On the St. Lawrence River where the river narrowed Champlain found the perfect spot. But this place brought bad memories to the French.This was the place where Cartier had tried to build Staddacona but during the winter his crew suffered badly from scurvy. Champlain named this place Quebec which means where the river narrowed. It was made as a fur trading post. This was France’s first settlement in Canada. next

  11. By 1609 14 of his 28 men had died of scurvy and other diseases. Champlain that year helped the Huron fight the Iroquois and he shot three natives with his gun. From then on the Iroquois were at war with the French for almost one hundred years. In 1610 Champlain married a 12 year old girl named Helen Boulle. At this time Champlain was 40 years old. They didn’t know each other very well when they married. In 1620 Helen went to live with Champlain in Quebec. She was 22 and he was 50. 4 years later she left and went back to France. Champlain died 11 years later in 1635 on Christmas day. Hundreds of Indians attended his funeral. Jonathon Harder back to Contents

  12. Samuel de Champlain by Jonathon W The Huron and Montagnais gave him fur and in return he helped them fight in all of their wars. When Champlain sailed the St.Lawrence River about fifty years later to trade furs no one at all lived in Stadicona. Champlain found only meadows when he went up the St.Lawrence River to Stadicona. Donaconna is a man that had died there after not seeing his home land again. In 1608. Champlain came to Quebec to build a habitation. On the good will of Champlain's native allies Quebec survived. Twenty-eight of Chaplains men lived and four-teen died because of scurvy Champlain is known as the father of Quebec. Champlain went west to trade fur as well as help the Indians in the war.Samuel de Champlain set up a fur trade partner ship so the Indians wouldn’t trade with the English. The people he set up a fur trade partner ship were the Huron and Algonquians. next

  13. Samuel de Champlain back to Contents When Champlain agreed to help the Huron fight the Iroquois the war almost destroyed all of New France next

  14. Samuel de Champlain by Liane For 60 years, memories of bitter winter and deaths kept France from trying to settle in America. Some traders came to test, Lawrence to speack furs. Some fisherman made they early trip to load their ships with cod. But no France come to live in Canada. Other countries continued to explore. To the north, English explorers sought a north west passage to China.The English claimed New found land as an English colony. They wanted abase from which they also wanted a share of the riches, whether furs sor gold, to be found in the New land. In 1604, a new French expedition, headed by the sieur de monts, witch Samuel de Champlain as one of the ships! Captains and mapmaker for the trip, set out , from France. They dropped an chor in what is now called the Bay of Fundy. They decided to winter on an Island near the mouth of the St. Croix River. back to Contents

  15. Samuel de Champlain by Nathanael He was born at Brouage, France 1570. He diet at Quebec on Christmas day. Samuel de Champlain built the first colony at St. Lawrence River. It was the first successful settlement in Canada. That’s way he was often called “ Father of New France.” Samuel de Champlain wanted land to farm and so he get settlers from France to farm the land. The land was very good,there are growing nun trees, vines, and other fruits. The French Where friends with the natives, and Micmacs and they helped each other. Samuels wife was 12 when she married Samuel and Samuel was 40 when they married Her name was Helene Boulee. When she was was 22 she comes with Champlain to Quebec. In 1624 Helene Boulee went back to France and stay there till her death. Samuel was an excellent Map maker. next

  16. Samuel wants to do trade posts in Canada. But for that he needed settlers to trade and slowly the posts grow. In 1606 French fur traders made several attempts. Samuel and his mans helped the natives and Huron to fight against the Iroquois. back to Contents

  17. The Fall of New France by Dietrich During the Years of 1758-1763 there was war between England and France . The wars where fought in Europe and in North America.when the English came to Louisburg they attacked the mighty fortress and destroyed it. Then they went along the shores of the St. Lawrence and stopped supplies from being shopped in. Then in 1759 they went over to Quebec and fired cannons at the walls and burned some of the house inside of the walls. next

  18. Then one night General James Wolfe led them to the bay named L’anse au Foulon and started to climb the cliffs. Montcalm’s army noticed the English where on the Plains of Abraham so Montcalm sent out his army and they attacked. They attacked the as usual forming two lines being one side the English and the other side French. They got ready and attacked with their guns. After 15 minutes the war ended and the French fled the English won and it lasted only 15 minutes! The sad part is that both Generals died in the Battle. After the battle on the Plains of Abraham the treaty of Paris was signed . Now Canada has two Official languages French and English. By: Dietrich Neufeld back to Contents

  19. Fur trade by Alex When New France was just beginning they depended on the fur trade. They had people that would go trade(mostly soldiers )for furs . Some people that traded without a licence are called courier de bois. They would get away with trading without a licence because people never enforced the law enough. The people that went to New France were mostly trying to get furs . Furs were the best riches of New France. New France used beaver furs to make beaver hats, coats and robes. The fur traders of New France made fur forts where they could trade furs with the Indians. The fur traders made fur trading posts along lake Winnipeg and along the Mississippi river. Each year the fur brigade left to these fur trading posts to trade for furs with the Indians .

  20. The things that the fur traders traded were liquor . Bishop Laval tried to stop liquor in the fur trade . Governor Frontenac was in charge of the fur trade and stopped Bishop Laval from stopping the liquor use in the fur trade. The people in the fur trade also traded kettles and knives and guns and other weapons. The natives really liked these thing that the the fur traders were giving them. The natives were glad to be able to trade with them. back to Contents

  21. The Fur Trade by Adam Most of the explorers who went to the west were seeking furs. The best riches of New France were the furs, furs for beaver hats, furs for robes and coats, furs to clothe the people of Europe. These could only come from North America. The French built fur forts where they could stay and trade for furs with the Indians They establishes a chain of trading posts to Lake Winnipeg and along the south to the Missippi. Each year the fur brigade would leave the St. Lawrence for these forts carrying trade goods. The french desire furs made alliances with the Indians nssesary. Without such alliances the fur rich areas beyond such wealth. back to Contents next

  22. The Fur Trade By: Bray Marten, Muskrat, Otter, and other furs. At certain fur trading forts the fur trading is done only once a year. The French had also traded clothes. Food, water, and other small goods to the Indians. The trading values are different at different times and at different areas. next

  23. The most important animal of the fur trade is the beaver. Lots of the French have build fur forts to stay and trade with the Indians. Once a year the Indians come and trade their furs and other goods to the French. There are a chain of fur forts that reached from the St.Lawrence river to the lake Winnipeg. The beavers fur that the French had got from the Indians and pressed it down into felt for very nice hats for their heads. The Europeans also traded for Here are examples of fur trading in the 1784: next

  24. Number of beaver skins Trade goods 1 34 kg beads 1 12 needles 1 1 unruffled shirt 1 2 hatchets 1 2 pairs of scissors 1 1 pair of shoes 1 1 blanket 2 1 plain hat 6 1coulerd striped blanket 10 to 12 1 gun type text here back to Contents

  25. Fur Trade by Jonathon H The first couriers des bois was Etienne Brule. After a few winters with nothing happening in Quebec, he begged Champlain to let him live with the Indians. Champlain let him go and after a few years with the Indians Brule learned their ways and went out on his own. This was the start of the fur trade. In 1678 the population of the colony was 9000 and 600 of these people were courier des bois. All of these people were breaking the law because only in 1681 did the government start giving out trading licenses. They didn’t give out licenses before that because the of King of France said that if all the people were out trading there would be nobody to defend the colony. There are two types of hair on a beaver pelt, long skinny hairs and short thick hairs. The French found out that the short hairs were better for making things such as hats, robes and coats. To use the short hairs they had to first rub out the long hairs and then pour a special liquid over the pelt so that they could pull the short hairs off the pelts. next

  26. There are also two types of beaver pelts, Castor gras (greasy) and Castor sec (dry).Castor gras had already been worn by the Indians the long hairs had been worn out and from their sweat combined with the smoke of their lodges the French didn’t have to pour the liquid on the pelts. Castor sec had been freshly trapped and the French had to rub out the hair etc. So the Castor gras pelts were more valuable to the French. Every year 400-600 Indians come to trade with the French. It was a noisy, festive occasion with lots of drinking. The Indians came with huge canoe loads of furs and after the trade they had little to show for what they had brought.The French got many times what they gave the Indians when they sold the furs in France. The fur trade played an important role in New France an was the main source of wealth. Jonathon H. next back to Contents

  27. New France by Liane Food: The people of New France had to produce as much of their own food as possible. The farmers were called habitants. They ate a lot of meat from farm animals such as cattle and pigs, and from wild animals such as birds, fish, moose, rabbits, and porcupines. Else are long fish that look a little like snakes. In their gardens, habitants grew such vegetables as corn, beans, peas, asparagus, cabbage, and cucumbers. They also grew fruit trees, berries, and nuts. Most meals in duded milk and cheese. To prevent it from going bad, meat and fish had to be eaten as soon as the animal was killed, or else smoked, salted, or dried. In the winter meat could be left out in the cold until frozen, then kept in a small shed attached to the house. Berries could be cooked with sugar to make jam. Clothing: In the early years of New France, there were few sheep to provide wool for clothing. next

  28. Cloth was made from of woven line or hemp, both of with are made from plants that could be grown in New France. This clothing was lined wit leather or fur for warmth. When the habitants began to raise sheep, the women spun the wool and woven cloth. Woolen under clothes kept them warm in Winter. Women wore long dresses. They might wear several skirts for warmth. Over the dresses they sometimes wore aprons and shawls.They wore small with caps or bonnets on there head. Men wore leather breaches, woven shirt, and leather jackets. Thy often wore wool caps called toques. In Quebec, some wealthy people wore the fine silk and long wigs that were fashionable in France. Homes: Most houses in New France had stone foundations. Walls of house build in the 1600s were of square -cut timbers space between the limbers, were filled with mortar house build the 1700s often had walls of stone were covered with pine boards, witch were with washed. The roofs, made of thatch or overlapping boards, were with washed. The roofs boards, were sleepy sloped so snow would slide off. next

  29. Until the 1740s, when glass became available, windows were made of greased paper or skin. These windows let in a little light ,but no one could see out them. The house of the habitants often had only one room with an attic above for sleeping. The seigneur usually had a large house. The most Important part of the house, was the large stone fireplace, witch gave heat and light. Wealthy people might have an iron stove as well. Church: The Church was very important in life of New France.Every day began and ended with prayers. The priest was expected to advise people who were not behaving as they were expected to do. The priest was asked to bless the crops. The people prayed together a good harvest. The people in New France were not work on Sunday’s. There were many other religious holidays and saints day during the year. Prayers and religious studies were an important part of every school day. back to Contents

  30. Fur Trade The mans how go trading where just the riche mans and they where called the coureur de bois “runners of the woods”. The coureur the bois did long distances with there bark canoes. The women's would do pemmican what the fur traders would carry with them on there long trips. In 1743 explorers first found the foothills on there fur trade trip. The young mans where exited to go trading but but they had to work on the farm But they doesn't wont to work on a farm they wanted to go trading. The main reasons from 1600s to 1800s was the fur trade. The most important fur was the beaver and it was used for hats, clothing, robes, and coats. The fur just come from America.The fur was pressed into felt and and out of the felt they make fashionable hats for Europe. They also traded for marten, muskrat, otter, and other furs. The trading is one time a year and it would last one or two weeks. The Indians would set up a camp to trade. By; Nathanael Bergmann next

  31. back to Contents next

  32. Fur Trade by Justin From the early 16oo’s until the 1800’s the main business in Canada was the fur trade carried on between the Indians and the English or french. The most important fur was the beaver. Beaver fur was pressed into felt to make hats that were fashionable in Europe. As Europeans traveled inland they also traded for marten,muskrat,otter and other furs. The fur most wanted by the traders or the pacific coast was that of the sea otters. Indian and metis women made pemmican the food that the fur traders carried with them on their long trips. Women also made the warm skin and fur clothing that the traders needed to keep them warm in the winter and snow shoes that they needed to travel over snow. Many fur traders married Indian women and learned to speak cree or other Indian languages. These women learned to speak the European language of their husbands. They became interpreters between the Indian and the traders. Indian and metis women often knew the travelling routes of western Canada. Some European explorers were guided by their Indian or metis wives and their relatives. next

  33. These women learned to speak the European language of their husbands. They became interpreters between the Indian and the traders. Indian and metis women often knew the travelling routes of western Canada. Some European explorers were guided by their Indian or metis wives and their relatives. back to Contents

  34. The Fur Trade by Nic The people of New France used the beaver fur for warmth. In the 1500s the beaver fur was a symbol showing if a person was rich or poor. They use the beaver fur because their work is half done. The pelts of a beaver which were brought downriver by craft to the French trading posts were of two types, castor grass, and castor sec. The beaver fur was very important to France. The competition is so great for the furs that traders from many different nations have settled along the pacific. Other traders followed them hoping to get quick profits. The Nor'easters seemed to be most determined and successful.

  35. The French desire for Canadian furs is which made the alliances with the Indians happen. Without alliances rich fur areas beyond Quebec and Montreal would be closed to the French. Without on the fur trade. The demand for Canadian furs was created by fashion in Europe. The fur trade was a very profitable business. Each year ships with supplies from France would bring provisions for the colony and goods to be used in the trading with the Indians. The trade items were of two types, those which are useful, like iron goods, fire arms and blankets, and those which weren’t very useful, like beads, a variety of colored trinkets and brand. The impacts of these products of a more technologically advanced society was profound.

  36. type text here back to Contents

  37. Francois De Laval by Alex When Francois De Laval was a small boy he wanted to be a missionary. He also liked to explore different places. He liked to learn about the bible. When he became older he became a Jesuit priest. He also tried to increase the power of the catholic church, and in 1658 he became a bishop of the catholic church.The next year he went to lead the church in New France. He lived by the strict rules of piety . He slept on a hard bed and ate simple food.He also chose to live in poverty.In 1663 he started a minary for training priests. He also brought missionaries to New France.He didn’t like makeup, fancy clothes ,parties or games. He lived a holy life. next

  38. He liked to help people in the hospital. He worked day and night caring for the sick and hungry. He even made their beds for the sick and hungry .In 1674 Francois De Laval became the first bishop of New France. He also started schools in New France.And in 1812 they made Laval university. Their was also many other schools named after him. He even tried to stop liquor in the fur trade, but governor Frontenac stopped him from taking away liquor in the fur trade. In 1688 Francois De Laval retired as bishop of New France. He lived the rest of his life in Quebec . Before he died he gave away all that he owned. He even shared his last meal with the hungry . Francois De Laval died in 1708 at 81 years old. back to Contents

  39. Bishop Laval by Hailey Bishop Laval was the first official bishop at New France. His full name was Bishop François de Laval. Bishop Laval first came to New France in in June. 1659.Later he was appointed bishop. The job Bishop Laval had was not an easy one. First he had to be appointed Bishop. Then he needed to show that he was a good leader of the church. Then he needed to be kind to the people of the colony. He did a lot for New France, under the government the king had set up. Some of the things he did were he started a school, and a hospital, he also cared for the sick. next

  40. He also encouraged many priests to go to New France. Some other things were he started a school to teach the people of New France, the trades so they could help the colony. Bishop Laval enforced strict morals. He Also was a big opponent of the sale of brandy to the native people. He was the founder seminary of Quebec. In 1663 Bishop Laval trained the new priests for work among the colony and the people of New France, and natives.He also helped the new priests around the colony. He over ruled the authority of the king of France. Something else he did was next

  41. the not only reported to the king of France, but he reported the Rome as Well. When he was in New France he never got married. After he started schools, and hospitals he worked in them for a while. Because he was the best Bishop of New France, and he did so much for New France He is going to be remembered for a long time in Canadian history. back to Contents

  42. Bishop Laval by Stephanie N In New France, the first bishop was Francois de Laval. Francois de Laval, or known as Bishop Laval, had done a lot for his little town of New France in Quebec, which became big with the help of the governor and intendant. Bishop Laval had a lot of jobs to make New France a bigger place. Laval represented the church, was in charge of missionaries, of the churches, hospitals, the schools and missions to the Natives. Bishop Laval thought that missionary work was very important. He started a college in New France so that priests could be trained to work in the churches. .He helped nuns who nursed and taught people. He also started schools and hospitals. The schools taught people a lot of different trades that could help the colony. next

  43. In the Jesuit college taught people courses in: training priests, mathematics for surveyors, map makers, navigators and engineers, hydrography, arts: painting, sculpture, gliding, cabinet making, trades: carpentry, joinery, slating (roofing) shoe repairing, tailoring, building construction, tool-making lock smithing and agriculture. Francois de Laval was very active in political matters. This caused conflict among the certain officials of the colony. In the 1665, the influence started to decrease. The bishops of New France were: Francois de Laval,1674-1688, Jean Baptiste de la Croix Cheveriere de Saint-Valler,1688- 1727, Louis Francois Dupless de Mornay1727-1733, Pierre Herman Dosquet, 1733-1739, Francois Louis Pourroy de Lauberiviere, 1739-1740, and Henri-Marie Dubreuil de Pontbriand, 1741-1760. back to Contents

  44. by Stephanie C In the early years of New France, there was barely any sheep to provide wool for clothes. Cloth was made of linen and hemp. Both of these types of cloth is made from a plant that could be grown in New France. Most of their clothes had fur or leather inside for more warmth. When the habitants began to raise sheep, the women spun the wool and wove the cloth. Woolen underclothes kept the people warm in winter, and absorbed perspiration in summer. Women’s Clothing Women wore long dresses. They sometimes wore several skirts under their dress for warmth.Over the dress they wore an apron and a shawl.On their heads they wore small white caps or bonnets. next

  45. Men’s Clothing The men wore leather breeches,woven shirts and leather jackets. They often wore woolen caps called tuques. The shoes they wore were made of leather, which were called moccasins, and wooden clogs. In Quebec, some of the rich people wore fine silks and long wigs that were very fashionable in New France. By: Stephanie Christiuk back to Contents

  46. Life Styles By: Adam B They produce as much of their food as possible. They eat lots of meat from farm animals such as cattle, pigs, and wild animals such as birds, fish, moose, rabbits, porcupine and eels. The eels were a major part of New France’s food. In New France they eat bacon twice a day. They eat no veal or sheep. When sheep die the pigs eat the remains. The people of New France eat lots of vegetables not including asparagus and artichokes. They grow hard cabbages and turnips. They also grow fruit trees, berries, and nuts. The habitants made whole wheat bread out of the wheat the grow. There breakfast would be pancakes and milk Early in New France there were few sheep to provide wool for clothing. Clothing was made of woven linen or hemp. They grew plants that they could get it from. The clothing had leather or fur for warmth When a habitant begins to raise sheep women spun the wool and wove cloth. The woolen underclothes kept them warm in the winter and absorbed perspiration in the summer. Women wore long dresses they might wear several skirts for warmth. Over the dresses they might wear aprons or shawls. They wore small white caps or bonnets. Men wore leather breeches woven shirts and leather jackets they often wore woolen caps called tuques. Shoes were leather moccasins or wooden clogs next

  47. Women wore long dresses they might wear several skirts for warmth. Over the dresses they might wear aprons or shawls. They wore small white caps or bonnets. Men wore leather breeches woven shirts and leather jackets they often wore woolen caps called tuques. Shoes were leather moccasins or wooden clogs. Most homes in New France had stone foundations. Walls of houses built in the 1600’s were square cut timbers. Houses built in the 1700’s often had walls of stone sometimes the stones were covered with pine boards which were whitewashed. The roofs made of thatch or overlapping boards. The roofs were steeply sloped so snow would fall off the roofs. Until the 1740’s when glass became available windows where made of greased paper skin, these windows let in A little light but no one could see out of them. next

  48. When the first french colonists arrived in New France various Ameridin communities already occupied the territories and practiced there own religion. Based on the unit, and coherence. The catholic clergy organized itself early on. In 1763 at the time of conquest, French Canadians maintained the free exercised of the religion of the church. back to Contents

  49. Lifestyles in New France by Alyssa Food- The habitants ate four meals a day. They rose early and worked for several hours, then came to the house for a breakfast consisting of wheat pancakes, whole wheat bread and creamy milk. They also ate three other meals, lunch at noon, a light dinner a four and a large dinner at eight. For the meals other than breakfast the habitants enjoyed food such as cheese, milk, whole wheat bread, tourtiere or meat pie and sipaille or wild game pie. If you were invited to someone else’s house for supper, you had to bring your own knife. next

  50. Clothing-In summer, the women wore long dresses and shawls. In the house, women wore aprons for housework like cleaning and baking. A bonnet was worn at all times when a woman was outdoors. Men wore deerskin pants and moose skin jackets. In winter, they wore a fur or woolen hat called a tuque. Deerskin and moose skin was made into leather for warm mittens and boots in winter. Men wore moccasins in summer and boots in winter. Women wore wooden clogs in summer and boots in winter. next