Food Colorants Presented by American Color Research Center, (ACRC) Inc.
Certified Colors Non-certified Colors Food Colors In USA:
Certified Food Colors • Every batch has to be certified by FDA • Currently listed: • Blue #1 • Blue #2 • Green #3 • Red #3 • Red #40 • Yellow #5 • Yellow #6
Non-Certified Colors (natural colors) • Do not need certificate to sell or use. • Most are from nature (Natural Colors) • Members Include: • Annatto extract • Beet juice powder • Canthaxanthin • Caramel
Non-Certified Colors (natural colors) • Beta-Apo-8’Carotenal • Beta carotene • Cochineal extract/carmine • Grape color extract • Grape skin extract • Fruit Juice
Non-Certified Colors (natural colors) • Vegetable juice • Paprika oleoresin • Riboflavin • Titanium dioxide • Turmeric • Turmeric oleoresin
Artificial Colors Obtained by Chemical reactions Relatively stable (in most cases) Less costly to use Health concerns Allergens Cancer risks? Consumer acceptability: Questionable Natural Colors Obtained from nature Processed by physical means May be less stable than synthetic ones May be more costly to use. No health concerns Benefits to health _ Consumer acceptability: Good Artificial Color vs. Natural Color
Certified Colors(Artificial) A Brief Review
Artificial Colors • Blue # 1. • Stable • Staining: Cloth, mouth, skin
Artificial Colors, cont’d • Blue #2: • Not stable
Artificial Colors, cont’d • Red #3: • Purplish red • Not stable to acid (precipitation) • Not stable to light
Artificial Colors, Cont’d • Red # 40: • Strawberry-like red • Not stable to reducing agent (ascorbic acid) • Reacts with proteins causing discoloration
Artificial Colors, Cont’d • Yellow #5 • Bright greenish yellow (lemon-like) • Stable to light and heat • Not stable to reducing agents • Tends to react with proteins—discoloration • Health concerns: • Allergen • Cancer risks? • Hyperactivity
Yellow #6 • Orange-like color • Reacts with reducing agents and proteins-discolorations
Non-certified Colors(Natural Colors) A brief review
Annatto • Two forms commercially available: • Bixin.
Natural Colors • Annatto extract. • Extracted from annatto seeds, Bixa orellna L., a tropical bush.
Annatto • Bixin • Color in final foods: orange. • Solubility: oil soluble. • Stability: • Light stability: Fair. • Heat Stability: good under 130 oC.
Annatto, cont’d Bixin, cont’d • Applications: fatty or oily foods, including • Snack • Cake and other bakery • Butter • Popcorn oil
Annatto, Cont’d Norbixin • Solubility • water soluble in neutral or alkaline solution • Precipitates in acidic solutions (pH<5). • Stability: • Light stability: fair • Heat Stability: good under 130 oC • Acid stability: poor
Annatto, Cont’d • Norbixin, Cont’d • Applications • Cheese • Bakery • Snacks • Confectionery • Others
Annatto, Cont’d • Problems with annatto applications: • Precipitation in acidic solutions • “Pinking” in cheese • discoloration
Annatto, Cont’d • Our solutions: • Non-pinking annatto color for cheese Photo 5. Cheese paste colored with ACRC annatto color (left) and competitor's annatto color (right), and then exposed to partial sun light for 3 weeks.
Annatto, cont’d Our solution: Acid-stable annatto emulsion for beverages
Beet Juice Concentrate • Obtained from red beet roots
Beet Juice Concentrate • Solubility: water soluble
Beet Juice Concentrate • Stability: • Light: good • Heat: Poor. Will not survive during heat processing in most cases • pH: almost no effect
Beet Juice Concentrate • Applications: • Ice Cream • Ice bar • Hard candy • Dry Beverage mixes (in powder form) • Noodle/pasta
Beta carotene/natural mixed carotenes • Synthetic or extracted from natural source, plants or algae
Beta carotene/natural mixed carotenes • Solubility • Oil soluble • Our Solution: Made water-dispersible.
Beta carotene/natural mixed carotenes • Stability: • Heat stability: Good • Light stability: Poor • We have stabilized version of carotene emulsions
Beta carotene/natural mixed carotenes Our Solution: Stabilization. Left: ACRC, Right: A competitor’s product. Both were exposed to sunlight for 5 days Photo 1.Stability comparison. Both were boiled, hot filled and exposed to outdoor direct sunlight for 5 days. PH 2.3 Left: ACRC natural carotenes. Right: Control (a competitor’s sample)
Beta carotene/natural mixed carotenes • Stability, cont’d • Setting: easy to form rings in beverage bottle neck. • Our Solution: We have developed ringing-free emulsions for beverage applications.
Caramel • Source: • Reaction products of carbohydrates during heating • Usually ammonium and sulfate are added • Negatively charged • Positively charged • We supply ammonium- and sulfur-free caramel, the “natural” caramel
Caramel • Stability • Light: very stable • Heat: very stable • Acid: use acid stable type
Caramel • Applications: • Beverage • Bakery • Snack • Confectionery • Others
Cochineal Extract • Source • Extracted from cochineal (dactylopius coccus costa)
Cochineal Extract • Stability • Light: excellent • Heat: excellent • pH: poor • Orange in acidic pH • Purple in neutral pH • Blue in alkaline pH
Cochineal Extract • Acid-stable cochineal extract • ACRC developed excellent acid-stability of our cochineal extract: • Can be boiled in 10% citric acid or even 0.01N HCL for at least 3 hrs. • Does not precipitate in acidic beverages
Cochineal Extract • Acid-stable cochineal extract • Competitors’ acid-proof cochineal extracts: • Fade in 0.3% citric acid solution on boiling • Precipitate in beverage and cause discoloration
Cochineal Extract Left: Control (An acid proof cochineal extract from a competitor) in 0.3% citric acid solution. The original red color faded away after exposure. Center: ACRC 1162-ralb in 1.0% citric acid solution. The original red color did not fade. Right: ACRC 1162-ralb in 0.01N HCL. The original red color did not fade.
Carmine • Source: • Aluminum/calcium lake of carminic acid, the coloring component in cochineal extract • In powder form, insoluble in water, soluble in alkaline water.
Carmine Carmine solution is not acid stable: • Discoloration • Precipitation
Carmine • Applications: • Surimi • Sea food • Pasta • Bakery-pie fillings • Candy • Gelatin • Pudding
Grape Color Extract • Sources: • Extract of precipitated lees of Concord grape juice during storage • Solubility: • Water
Grape Color Extract • Stability: • Light: good • Heat: fair • pH: poor Acidic: red to purple Neutral: purple Alkaline: blue
Grape Color Extract • Applications: • Non-beverage foods • Pie filling • Fruit preparation • others
Grape Skin Extract (Enochianina) • Source • Extract of deseeded marc, remaining after grapes have been pressed for juice or wine. • Solubility: • water
Grape Skin Extract (Enochianina) • Stability: • Light: good • Heat: fair • pH: poor Acidic: red to purple Neutral: purple Alkaline: blue