Geographical Characteristics of the State The Cultural Mosaic Fellman, and Notes from D.J. Zeigler of Old Dominion
State Sovereignty Nation Nation-State Part-nation State Binational State Multinational State Multistate Nation Stateless Nation Nationalism Functional Region MDC LDC Postindustrial Sectors of the Economy Primary Secondary Tertiary Vocab Review
New Vocab • Wallerstein’s World Systems Theory: proposes that social change in the developing world is inextricably linked to the economic activities of the developed world • Core – Processes that incorporate higher levels of education, higher salaries and more technology; generate more wealth than periphery countries in the world economy • Semi-Periphery – Places where core & periphery processes are both occurring; places that are exploited by the core but in turn exploit the periphery • Periphery – Processes that incorporate lower levels of education, lower salaries, and less technology; and generate less wealth than core countries in the world economy
New Vocab • Brandt Line
Territoriality • The modern state is an example of a common human tendency: the need to belong to a larger group that controls its own piece of the earth, its own territory. • AP Central: How earth’s surface should be organized • This is called territoriality: a cultural strategy that uses power to control area and communicate that control, subjugating inhabitants and acquiring resources.
Shapes of States • Compact States • Efficient • Theoretically round • Capital in center • Shortest possible boundaries to defend • Improved communications • Ex. Burundi, Kenya, Rwanda, Uganda, Poland, Uruguay
Shapes of States • Elongated States • States that are long and narrow • Suffer from poor internal communication • Capital may be isolated • Ex. Chile, Norway, Vietnam, Italy, Gambia
Shapes of States • Fragmented States • Several discontinuous pieces of territory • Technically, all states w/off shore islands • Two kinds: separated by water & separated by an intervening state • Exclave – • Ex. Indonesia, USA, Russia, Philippines, Azerbaijan, Angola
Shapes of States • Prorupted States • w./large projecting extension • Sometimes natural • Sometimes to gain a resource or advantage, such as to reach water, create a buffer zone • Ex. Thailand, Myanmar, Namibia, Mozambique, Cameroon, Dem. Rep. of Congo
Proruption Examples • Dem. Rep. of Congo – when Belgians colonized included Zaire River to Atlantic Ocean • Afghanistan – when British ruled, created a 200 mi. proruption to prevent Russia from sharing border with Pakistan • Namibia – Germans carved a proruption known as Caprivi Strip to gain access to the Zambezi River
Shapes of States • Perforated States • A country that completely surrounds another state • Enclave – the surrounded territory • Ex. Lesotho/South Africa, San Marino & Vatican City/Italy
Enclaves and exclaves • An enclave is an area surrounded by a country but not ruled by it. • It can be self-governing (Lesotho) or an exclave of another country. • Can be problematic for the surrounding country. • Pene-enclave—an intrusive piece of territory with a tiny outlet such as Gambia.
An exclave is part national territory separated from the main body of the country to which it belongs. Example: Kaliningrad, separated from Russia, Cabinda from Angola, Alaska from US Very undesirable if a hostile power holds the intervening territory. Defense and supplies are problematic. Inhabitants may develop separatist ideas. Example: Pakistan and Bangladesh. Exclave
Distribution of territory—geographic characteristics of states • The more compact the territory, the easier it is to govern. • Ideal shape is round or hexagonal. • Types of shapes: compact, prorupt, elongated, fragmented and perforated (which contains an enclave). • The most damaging territorial distributions affect a country’s cohesiveness and stability: enclaves and exclaves.
Landlocked States • No access to major sea or ocean • Must negotiate rights to move resources through other countries – problems exist when countries do not agree on fundamental policies
Location • Relative location: Some states are landlocked.
Boundaries • Natural or Physical Boundaries • Mountains • Deserts • Water – rivers, seas, lakes, oceans
Boundaries • Physical / Natural Boundaries • Geometric Boundaries
Boundaries • Physical / Natural Boundaries • Geometric Boundaries • Cultural Boundaries • Antecedent Boundaries • Malaysia/Indonesia • Canada/US • Consequent Boundaries • Religious Boundaries • between Ireland & N. Ireland • Language Boundaries • Subsequent Boundaries • Yugoslavia • Superimposed Boundaries • Indonesia/Papua New Guinea
Boundaries • Physical / Natural Boundaries • Median-Line Principle - approach to dividing and creating boundaries at the mid-point between two places. • Geometric Boundaries • Cultural Boundaries • Relict Boundaries – • North & South Vietnam
Fortified Boundaries • Great Wall of China • Berlin Wall • Morocco/Western Sahara – earth berms
Boundary definition – determining the boundary by a treaty-like agreement through actual points, latitude/longitude, or landscape • Boundary delimitation – the boundary is drawn on the map • Boundary demarcation – the boundary is established by steel posts, concrete pillars, fences, etc. to mark the boundary on the ground
Boundary Disputes • Definitional: focus on legal language (e.g. median line of a river: water levels may vary) • Locational: definition is not in dispute, the interpretation is; allows mapmakers to delimit boundaries in various ways • Operational: neighbors differ over the way the boundary should function (migration, smuggling) (e.g., US/Mexico) • Allocational: disputes over rights to natural resources (gas, oil, water) (e.g., Saddam Hussein invaded Kuwait, in part, due to a dispute over oil rights regarding the Ramallah oil field (mostly in Iraq but straddling into Kuwait)
Politics of Geography Effect of place on politics Example: Political Borders
Deforestation in Bolivia • http://www.pbslearningmedia.org/content/ess05.sci.ess.earthsys.bolivia/
How states organize their territory for administrative purposes. Governments decide where power is localized so there is a locus of power within the state. Power can be highly concentrated or widely diffused. The two basic ways governments are administered are unitary and federal.
Unitary Countries where the capital is associated with the core, and all power is concentrated in a single place, the capital. • Centralized governments, relatively few internal contrasts and a strong sense of national identity, little provincial power. • Examples: France, China and newly independent states developed out of former colonies.
Power is shared between a central government and the governments of provinces. Acknowledges and gives some powers to its constituent parts; have strong regional government responsibilities. Examples: the US, Canada, Germany, Australia. --One result of federalism is to lessen public support for something so radical as secession (as in Canada). Federal
Devolution • The process whereby regions within a state demand and gain political strength and growing autonomy at the expense of the central government. • Example: the Soviet Union
Regional or asymmetric federalism • Gives some authority to subdivisions while keeping central authority in monetary policy, defense, foreign policy, etc. within the capital. • Canada: establishment of the self-governing Nunavut territory • United Kingdom: separate status for Scotland, Wales and Ireland. • Spain: Catalonia, Basque country.
Capital moves • The capital may be newly created or moved from another city: Karachi to Islamabad, Istanbul to Ankara. • Forward-thrust capital city: One that is purposely placed in the interior of a country to show government’s desire to encourage more uniform development: • Brazil moved its capital from Rio de Janeiro to Brasilia in the 1950’s.
Nigeria • 100 million people speak more than 400 different languages: • Hausa – 35 mil • Yoruba – 25 mil • Ibo – 20 mil • Rest spoken by less than 1 mil Abuja: New Capital Lagos: Old Capital School instruction in English