English wanted Raw Materials Lumber, Fish, Cotton, & Tobacco • Triangle Trade • Americas = Raw Materials • Europe = Finished Goods / Industrial Revolution • Africa = • Slaves
Causes of the Revolutionary War • French and Indian War – Treaty of Paris (1763) – France gave up ALL land claims in N. America. Native Americans: British raise prices on goods, refuse to pay for use of land, more settlers moving west
Causes of the Revolutionary War • Proclamation of 1763 – British set Appalachian Mts. as boundary / Control trade / raise $ to pay debt Upsets colonists • Sugar Act of 1764 – Lowered tax on imported molasses, set up Vice Admiralty courts, officers could seize goods w/o court order (WRITS OF ASSISTANCE), effort to stop smuggling upsets colonists - - violated rights as an English citizen: to secure home, trial by jury, and “innocent until proven guilty”
Causes of the Revolutionary War • Stamp Act of 1765(NO TAXATION WITHOUT REPRESENTATION!) - Tax on ALL printed material (Newspapers, wills, playing cards, etc) Colonists opposed for 2 reasons: Parliament interfering by taxing colonists directly & Taxation w/o representation. Protests, petitions, letters, and boycotts were called by Colonists. Britain REPEALS the act, but Parliament passes: DECLARATORY ACT which stated that Parliament had the right to tax and make decisions for British Colonies “in all cases” • Quartering Act Passed- Housing British soldiers in colonist’s homes. • Townshend Acts of 1767 New tax on imported goods (such as glass, tea, paper, lead, paint) More colonial anger and boycotts
Causes of the Revolutionary War • 1768 Soldiers sent to enforce tax - “Rude”, sometimes violent leads to more colonist anger • 1770 Boston Massacre occurs - Fight between colonists/ Brit troops = 5 colonists killed. Used as propaganda by colonists (Samuel Adams) create more anger call for more boycotts. Parliament REPEALS Townshend Acts on all goods EXCEPT TEA. • Tea Act of 1773 - Gave British East India Co. virtual monopoly on tea. Cut out the middle man (distributors) by selling directly to shopkeepers. Colonists call for more boycotts and vow to block ships from unloading
Causes of the Revolutionary War • Boston Tea Party of 1773 - Boston Sons of Liberty disguise themselves as Mohawk, dump 342 chests of tea into Boston Harbor in an act of defiance to the crown. These actions destroyed private property, bankrupted the B.E.I.C., threw thousands of people out of work and out England into a depression. • Intolerable Acts Passed - King George III responds by passing the Coercive Acts (which the colonists called the Intolerable Acts). These acts: • 1. Closed Boston Harbor until colonist repaid for damaged tea • 2. Banned town meetings • 3. Forced Bostonians to quarter British troops
Causes of the Revolutionary War • 1774 Committees of Correspondence - Colonial committee gathers to discuss / share political ideas • 1774 1st Continental Congress Meets - (Philadelphia) • 1. Draft statement of grievances calling for repeal 13 acts of Parliament • 2. Boycott British Trade - NOT buy or sell British goods in Colonies • 3. Form a Militia (group of citizen soldiers) - begin stockpiling weapons and ammunition. Minutemen form (can be ready on a “minute’s notice”) • 4. King George announces to Parliament that the colonies are “in a state of rebellion” and prepare for conflict. • April of 1775, war begins at Lexington and Concord. - “The Shot heard ‘round the World” . First battles of the Revolution - Colonists defeated at Lexington, but victorious at Concord (North Bridge). As British retreat to Boston, militia hidden behind trees and fences continually attack them. Cause severe casualties for British (174 wounded, 74 dead)
Revolutionary War - Choosing Sides • The Loyalists - Americans who remained LOYAL to Britain. Sometimes called Tories. About 1 in 5 Americans were loyalists. Some remained loyal because they didn’t feel Patriot’s grievances warranted rebellion, some feared disorder, others depended on Britain for jobs. The strongest Loyalist regions of the country were: the Carolinas, and Georgia. **The weakest Loyalists region was in New England.** • Patriots - Colonists who supported independence from Britain.
Benjamin Franklin - Inventor, publisher, Pennsylvania Legislature, member of the 2nd Continental Congress, helped with Dec. of Independence Paul Revere - Famous “ride” to warn of British troops - “the regulars are coming!” Patrick Henry - Delegate of 1st & 2nd Continental Congress, One of the first to call for independence from Britain, “Give me Liberty or give me Death!” Samuel Adams - Delegate of 1st & 2nd Cont. Congress, called for Independence from Britain, Lead Boston Committee of Correspondence after Boston Massacre Benedict Arnold - He and Ethan Allen captured Ticonderoga, but eventually joined forces with British. Famous People of the Revolution
Famous People of the Revolution • John Adams - Cousin of Samuel Adams, Delegate 1st & 2nd Cont. Congress, Asked Jefferson to write Declaration of Independence, Became 2nd President of the US, • George Washington - Delegate to 1st and 2nd Cont. Congress, Commander of the Continental Army, 1st President of the United States. • Nathan Hale - Hero at Long Island, spy for Americans, hung for treason by British, “I only regret that I have but one life to lose for my country.” • John Paul Jones - Naval Commander of the warship Bonhomme Richard vs. British ship, Serapis. When asked if he would surrender, he stated: “I have not yet begun to fight.” Jones defeated British, but lost his ship.
Written by Thomas Jefferson Approved by congress on July 4, 1776 Rights to Life, Liberty, and Pursuit of Happiness. “All men are created Equal” More on this later . . . Declaration of Independence
Battles of the Revolution • Battle of Lexington & Concord - First battles • Fort Ticonderoga - B. Arnold and E. Allen capture - surprise the British • Battle of Bunker Hill - (Boston) - British victory, but Americans give strong battle • **Battle of Saratoga – French agree to join forces with the Americans after Am. Victory. • Battle at Trenton - Washington crosses Delaware R. and surprises British, lifts spirits of Continental Army • Battle of Yorktown - American / French defeat British, Britain realizes the war was too costly to pursue. Leads Americans to victory. • Treaty of Paris - Signed September 3, 1783, Britain recognized the United States of America as an independent nation and promise to withdraw ALL troops from American territory. U.S would allow British merchants to collect debts Americans owed them and advised states to return Loyalists properties taken from them.