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Splash Screen

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  1. Splash Screen

  2. Chapter Focus Section 1 Development of Foreign Policy Section 2 Shared Foreign Policy Powers Section 3 State and Defense Departments Section 4 Foreign Policy in Action Chapter Assessment Contents

  3. Why It’s Important

  4. Chapter Objectives • Development of Foreign Policy Describe the goals and development of United States foreign policy. • Shared Foreign Policy Powers Explain how the executive and legislative branches share foreign policy powers. • State and Defense Departments Summarize the roles of the Departments of State and Defense in foreign policy making. • Foreign Policy in Action Describe the tools of foreign policy. Chapter Objectives

  5. End of Chapter Focus

  6. Development of Foreign Policy • Key Terms • foreign policy, national security, isolationism, internationalism, containment • Find Out • • What are the major objectives of United States foreign policy? • • Why has a reevaluation of foreign policy been necessary since the end of the Cold War? Section 1 Introduction-1

  7. Development of Foreign Policy • Understanding Concepts • Public PolicyHow did United States foreign policy contribute to winning the Cold War? • Section Objective • Describe the goals and development of United States foreign policy. Section 1 Introduction-2

  8. The president of the United States exercises great powers, especially in the area of foreign policy. Even with the best advice of military and diplomatic experts, the U.S. president must make final, sometimes agonizing, decisions about the lives and safety of Americans. President Johnson confessed his deep worries about the growing conflict in Vietnam in these words: “I stayed awake last night thinking of this thing [the conflict] ...It looks to me like we are getting into another Korea ...I don’t think we can fight them more than 10,000 miles away from home ...And I don’t think that we can get out.” Section 1-1

  9. I. Goals of Foreign Policy (pages 607–609) • A. Foreign policy guides the nation’s relations with other countries. • B. Principal goals of American foreign policy: • 1) preserve the security of the United States; • 2) maintain trade and preserve access to natural resources; • 3) work for world peace; • 4) aid democratic nations and help create democracies; • 5) provide help for victims of natural disasters. Section 1-2

  10. I. Goals of Foreign Policy (pages 607–609) With which major foreign policy goals do you think the United States is having the most success? Answers will vary. Students should assess current international conditions. Section 1-3

  11. II. DevelopmentofForeignPolicy(pages 609–613) • A. In the early years the nation’s leaders followed a path of isolationism. • B. In 1823 the Monroe Doctrine ended the isolationism. • C. By the 1890s the United States had become a world power. • D. The United States became involved in foreign wars in 1898, 1917, and 1941. • E. After World War II the United States struggled with the Soviet Union in the Cold War, leading to a costly arms race between the two superpowers. Section 1-4

  12. II. DevelopmentofForeignPolicy(pages 609–613) • F. The United States adopted a policy known as containment to keep Soviet communism from expanding its power. • G. The Truman Doctrine in 1947 outlined the Marshall Plan, providing economic aid to nations threatened by totalitarian regimes. • H. The United States fought two wars that were the consequence of containment: the Korean War (1950–1953) and the Vietnam War (1964–1973). • I. In 1989 the Soviet Union collapsed, splitting into Russia and 14 other separate nations; this ended the Cold War and changed the political environment of the world. Section 1-5

  13. II. DevelopmentofForeignPolicy(pages 609–613) • J. In the years after the Cold War, the United States sent troops to Iraq, Somalia, Haiti, and the former Yugoslavia in order to protect American trade interests, encourage democracy, and advance human rights. • K. In the Persian Gulf War, the United States defended Kuwait against Iraq, protected American oil interests in the Middle East, and began programs aimed at preventing Iraq from developing weapons of mass destruction. Section 1-6

  14. II. DevelopmentofForeignPolicy(pages 609–613) • L. The September 11, 2001, terrorist attacks on the United States led to President George W. Bush’s war on terrorism and the preemptive invasion of Iraq. • M. After the initial military deployment, the United States kept a large number of troops in Iraq and pledged long-term aid toward the development of a stable democratic government there. Section 1-7

  15. II. DevelopmentofForeignPolicy(pages 609–613) Explain how the United States changed from a nation following a policy of isolation to a nation with interests in all parts of the world. For discussion of changes from isolation through the end of the Cold War see text pages 609–613. Section 1-8

  16. Checking for Understanding • 1. Main Idea Use a graphic organizer like the one below to show two foreign policy issues that are part of the nation’s new global agenda. • finding ways to open world markets to U.S. business, dealing with the increased threat of terrorism Section 1 Assessment-1

  17. Checking for Understanding • A. the avoidance of involvement in world affairs • B. involvement in world affairs • C. the policy designed to keep the Soviet Union from expanding its power • D. protection of a nation’s borders and territories against invasion or control by foreign powers • E. the strategies and goals that guide a nation’s relations with other countries Match the term with the correct definition. • ___ foreign policy • ___ national security • ___ isolationism • ___ internationalism • ___ containment • E • D • A • B • C Section 1 Assessment-2

  18. Checking for Understanding • 3. Identify Cold War, preemption. • The Cold War was a war of words and ideologies rather than a shooting war between the United States and the Soviet Union. • Preemption means that the United States will strike first with military force against any terrorist groups or rogue states that might threaten the nation with weapons of mass destruction. Section 1 Assessment-3

  19. Checking for Understanding • 4. What are the basic aims of American foreign policy? • The basic aims of American foreign policy are national security, free and open trade, world peace, democratic governments, and humanitarian concerns. Section 1 Assessment-4

  20. Checking for Understanding • 5. How did the United States carry out its policy of containment? • The United States carried out its policy of containment through economic and military aid to nations threatened by communism. Section 1 Assessment-5

  21. Critical Thinking • 6. Drawing Conclusions Do you believe the United States could follow a policy of isolationism at this time? Support your answer. • Answers should show an understanding of the global interdependence in today’s world and of the abundance of long-range weapons that make isolationism nearly impossible. Section 1 Assessment-6

  22. Public Policy In recent years, the development of an interdependent global economy has led to an ongoing debate about the degree to which free trade helps or hurts the United States. Create a political cartoon about this topic illustrating either the benefits of free trade or the potential problems that may result from global interdependence. Section 1 Concepts in Action

  23. End of Section 1

  24. Shared Foreign Policy Powers • Key Terms • ambassador, treaty, executive agreement, bipartisan • Find Out • • How is the executive branch structured to carry out United States foreign policy? • • What are the constitutional foreign policy powers of the president and Congress? Section 2 Introduction-1

  25. Shared Foreign Policy Powers • Understanding Concepts • Checks and Balances What powers of Congress act as a check upon the president’s power to conduct foreign policy? • Section Objective • Explain how the executive and legislative branches share foreign policy powers. Section 2 Introduction-2

  26. In October 1983 President Ronald Reagan sent U.S. marines and paratroopers to the island of Grenada in the Caribbean. He took this action to oust an anti-American Marxist regime that was friendly to the Soviet Union. As commander in chief, President Reagan was empowered to order this military action; however, he did so without asking Congress to declare war. Section 2-1

  27. I. PresidentialPowersandResponsibilities (pages 614–615) • A. The Constitution makes the president commander in chief, and it gives the president diplomatic powers. • B. As head of state the president symbolizes the leadership and the policies of the United States. Section 2-2

  28. I. PresidentialPowersandResponsibilities (pages 614–615) How does the president’s role as head of state increase his power in formulating U.S. foreign policy? Americans look to the head of state for leadership in formulating policy. Section 2-3

  29. II. Foreign Policy Advisors (pages 615–617) • A. Presidents have final responsibility for foreign policy decisions. • B. Important advisers include the secretaries of state and defense and the national security adviser. • C. The Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) gathers and coordinates information about other nations and advises the president. • D. Presidents also consult government foreign policy experts, trusted political friends, and cabinet members. Section 2-4

  30. II. Foreign Policy Advisors (pages 615–617) Explain the role of secretary of state in helping the president shape foreign policy. The secretary of state supervises diplomatic activity and provides advice on policy. Section 2-5

  31. III. Powers of Congress (pages 617–619) • A. The president directs United States foreign policy; Congress plays an important role based on Constitutional powers. • B. Only Congress has the power to declare war. • C. In 1973 lawmakers passed the War Powers Act, which forbids the president from sending armed forces into combat for more than 60 days without the consent of Congress. • D. Congress can refuse to provide funds for military action. Section 2-6

  32. III. Powers of Congress (pages 617–619) • E. The Senate must approve all treaties negotiated by the president. • F. The Senate can overturn the president’s granting of most favored nation status. Section 2-7

  33. III. Powers of Congress (pages 617–619) What was the effect of the War Powers Act passed by Congress in 1973? It gave Congress some control over the use of troops, but Congress is reluctant to use it. Section 2-8

  34. IV. The President and Congress (pages 619–620) • A. Congress passes most foreign policy bills and treaties the president proposes although it could block presidential foreign policy proposals and even initiate policies of its own. • B. Presidents’ policies have enjoyed bipartisan support in Congress. Section 2-9

  35. IV. The President and Congress (pages 619–620) • C. The president has advantages over Congress in conducting foreign policy. • 1) As head of state, the president is the leader of the entire nation, and only the president can speak for the United States. • 2) The president receives advice daily from the Department of State and the National Security Council, in order to respond rapidly to events. Section 2-10

  36. IV. The President and Congress (pages 619–620) What advantage does the president have over Congress in conducting foreign policy? As leader, the president is a single voice for the nation, can take quick action, and has access to vital secret information. Section 2-11

  37. V. Influence of Public Opinion (page 620) • A. Both the president and Congress are influenced by public opinion. • B. Organized interest groups may affect foreign policy bills. Section 2-12

  38. V. Influence of Public Opinion (page 620) How did the Vietnam protests demonstrate the influence of public opinion in foreign affairs? It influenced Johnson’s decision not to run for reelection and Nixon’s to withdraw troops. Section 2-13

  39. Checking for Understanding • 1. Main Idea Use a Venn diagram like the one below to compare executive agreements and treaties. • executive agreements—do not require Senate approval; treaties—require Senate approval; both—the president uses them to execute foreign policy Section 2 Assessment-1

  40. Checking for Understanding • A. an official of the government who represents the nation in diplomatic matters • B. an agreement made between the president and a head of state • C. consisting of members of both major political parties • D. a formal agreement between the governments of two or more countries Match the term with the correct definition. • ___ ambassador • ___ treaty • ___ executive agreement • ___ bipartisan • A • D • B • C Section 2 Assessment-2

  41. Checking for Understanding • 3. Identify secretary of state, national security adviser, Central Intelligence Agency. • The secretary of state supervises all the diplomatic activities of the American government. • The national security adviser serves as the director of the National Security Council and plays a major role in foreign affairs. • The Central Intelligence Agency, or CIA, is responsible for gathering and coordinating information about the governments, economies, and armed forces of other nations. Section 2 Assessment-3

  42. Checking for Understanding • 4. Which cabinet members generally work most closely with the president on foreign policy? • The secretaries of state and defense generally work the closest with the president on foreign policy. Section 2 Assessment-4

  43. Checking for Understanding • 5. What are the foreign policy powers of Congress? • The foreign policy powers of Congress are the power to declare war, appropriate money, ratify treaties, and confirm diplomatic appointments. Section 2 Assessment-5

  44. Critical Thinking • 6. Forming an Opinion Do you think the president has too much power in making foreign policy? Explain your answer. • Some students may believe that certain situations need immediate action that Congress cannot provide; other students may believe that the longer time required by Congress would help avoid rash or hasty actions. Section 2 Assessment-6

  45. Checks and Balances Use library resources to find specific examples of how public opinion changed U.S. policy in Vietnam in the 1960s and 1970s. Prepare a poster that illustrates the public’s reaction to the war and the government’s responses. Be sure to include pictures, captions, and headlines in your poster. Section 2 Concepts in Action

  46. End of Section 2

  47. State and Defense Departments • Key Terms • embassy, consulate, consul, passport, visa, conscription • Find Out • • How is the State Department structured to carry out United States foreign policy? • • What constitutional powers do Congress and the president have over the military? Section 3 Introduction-1

  48. State and Defense Departments • Understanding Concepts • Separation of Powers What constitutional provisions separate the powers of Congress and the president in developing and carrying out foreign policy? • Section Objective • Summarize the roles of the Departments of State and Defense in foreign policy making. Section 3 Introduction-2

  49. Millions of Americans who travel to foreign countries each year on vacation or on business trips have one thing in common; they need a passport. U.S. citizens can obtain a passport by paying a fee and submitting to the Department of State proof that they were born in the United States. Passports include the place and date of birth and a photograph of its holder. Section 3-1

  50. I. The Department of State (pages 621–623) • A. The secretary of state, head of the Department of State, advises the president on foreign policy. • B. The Departmentof Statehasfourmainduties: • 1) to keep the president informed about international issues, • 2) to maintain diplomatic relations with foreign governments, • 3) to negotiate treaties, and • 4) to protect the interests of U.S. citizens abroad. Section 3-2