1. Inventory control models EPL Model
2. Learning objective After this class the students should be able to:
calculate the order quantity that minimize the total cost inventory, based on the EPL model and
analyze the implication of this model using what-if through the Excel software.
3. Time management The expected time to deliver this module is 50 minutes. 30 minutes are reserved for team practices and exercises and 20 minutes for lecture.
4. Inventory & inventory system Inventory is the set of items that an organization holds for later use by the organization. An inventory system is a set of policies that monitors and controls inventory. It determines how much of each item should be kept, when low items should be replenished, and how many items should be ordered or made when replenishment is needed.
5. Basic types of inventory independent demand,
dependent demand, and
6. Independent Demand Independent demand items are those items that we sell to customers.
Dependent demand items are those items whose demand is determined by other items. Demand for a car translates into demand for four tires, one engine, one transmission, and so on. The items used in the production of that car (the independent demand item) are the dependent demand items.
Supplies are items such as copier paper, cleaning materials, and pens that are not used directly in the production of independent demand items
7. Why hold Inventory Each team is invited to discuss for 10 minutes about what they figure out to be the reasons that the organizations maintain inventory. At the and, they have to present a list of their supposed reasons.
8. Five reasons To decouple workcenters;
To meet variations in demand;
To allow flexible production schedules;
As a safeguard against variations in delivery time; and
To get a lower price.
9. The cost of Inventory Holding costs;
Ordering costs; and
10. Notation D = Demand rate (in units per year).
c = Unit production cost, not counting setup or inventory costs (in dollars per unit).
A = Constant setup (ordering) cost to produce (purchase) a lot (in dollars).
h = Holding cost
Q = Lot size (in units); this is the decision variable
11. Economic Lot Size Production Model
We use the same notation and assumptions of the EOQ model, but now P ( that not is instantaneous) designates the production rate, and t designates the time needed to produce the lot. Then, Q= P x t
12. The problem Beth Krider, Manager of Production for Zap Electronics, is making production plans for microphones for portable recorders. The rate of production (P) is 4,000 microphones per month, and the (D) demand rate is 1,000 microphones per month. The cost of each microphone is $6.75, and the inventory holding percent is 0.2.
She is wondering whether this lot size gives the lowest cost. Example from Operation Analysis Using Excel, p. 132Example from Operation Analysis Using Excel, p. 132
13. Cumulative production and Demand
14. Monthly inventory of microphones
15. Now A, the ordering cost, designates the setup cost for producing a lot of the microphones.
P designates the production rate, and t designates the time needed to produce the lot.
16. Average Inventory Level The maximum inventory is
17. The Factor F Demand rate (D) must be less than or equal to the production rate (P). If D = P, production just meets the demand. In this case, the factor is 0, and so is the inventory. If the production rate is very large compared to the demand, D/P is very small. In such cases, the factor is near 1 and the average inventory is Q/2, the same as in the EOQ problem. The straight line shows how the factor depends on the value of D/P.
18. The Costs Annual holding cost
19. The total cost To carry out the calculations, we need the other parameters of the problem.
Cost of each microphone: C = 6.75
Percent of holding cost: i = 20%
Setup cost: A = $28
Annual holding cost = 4,000 x 3/4 x 6.75 x 0.2/2 = $2,025
Annual setup cost = 12,000/4,000 x 28 = $84
Annual total cost = $2,109
20. The model
21. Conclusion We calculated the optimal production lot size and the costs and found that Q* = 814.68, and the total cost is $824.87.
This is $1.284.13 less than Beth's solution of ordering 4,000 microphones three times a year.
22. What-if Each team is invited to built a model in the Excel software and develop what-if analysis (10) minutes
25. Reference Operations Analysis Using Excel. Weida; Richardson and Vazsony, Duxbury, 2001,Chapter 6.