JapanChapter 14:ivb [Image source: http://www3.nationalgeographic.com/places/images/photos/photo_lg_japan.jpg]
Japan is an archipelago consisting of four main islands –Honshu,Shikoku, Kyushu,and Hokkaido – and over 4,000thousandsmaller ones. [Image source: http://z.about.com/d/geography/1/0/h/J/japan.jpg]
Since only 20% of the land is arable (easyto farm), the Japanese have had to relyon the sea to supplementtheir diet. [Image source: http://www.museum.cornell.edu/HFJ/permcoll/asia/img_jap/fishman_l.jpg]
The sea has also served as a natural barrier, preventing invasion from the mainland. [Image source: http://www.gsi.ie/NR/rdonlyres/1875D6E7-60A3-4812-8DF0-FBF8EF67F7DC/0/tsunami.gif]
According to legend, a divine brother and sister gave birth to thesun goddess Amaterasu Omi-kami.
According to legend, Jimmu Tenno, a great-great-great-grandson of Amaterasu Omi-kami, became thefirst emperor (Mikado) of Japan circa 660 B.C. [Image source: http://img331.imageshack.us/img331/5941/image012pk9.jpg]
The early inhabitantsof Japan probably migrated to the islands from other parts of Asia. [Image source: http://www.fieldmuseum.org/research_collections/anthropology/anthro_sites/boone/ainu/ainu_map/ainu_map1.html]
Japan was occupied by hunter-gatherers from the Asian mainland ca. 10,000 years ago.
Subsequent invaders from Asia introduced the islanders to agriculture. [Image source: http://www.lacma.org/art/images/NewAcq/fourseasons.jpg]
Present-day Japanese are probably descended from the Yayoi, a village-dwelling people who lived along streams and on the coastal plains and grew rice in irrigated fields. [Image source: http://brian.hoffert.faculty.noctrl.edu/TEACHING/FoundationsOfJapaneseCivilization.html]
Japan was invaded between 200 and 300 by horseback-riding, iron-clad warriors. [Image source: http://www.orientaloutpost.com/ancient_chinese_warrior_yue_fei_wall_scroll.php]
Some scholars believe these invaders were the ancestors of the aristocratic warriors and imperial family. [Image source: http://www.geocities.com/normlaw/brig-chn.gif]
Before therewas an emperor, regions of Japan were ruled by separate clans.(A clan is an group of families claiming descent from a common ancestor.) [Image source: http://www.zanshin-kai.co.uk/Aikido.html]
Shintoism • means “way of the gods” • only known indigenous religion of Japan • emphasizes sacred spaces and time
Kami • “divine spirits” • can be found in nature and in the processes of creation, disease, and healing
Practices • vary in local communities • rituals often honour ancestors and the forces of nature • emperors considered kami at one time -worshipped as divine before World War II
By A.D. 400, the Yamato Clan emerged as the dominantclan in Japan. [Image source: http://horse.shrine.net/samurai/image/yamato_samurai.jpg]
By the A.D. mid-500s the emperor had become a ceremonial figure, performing intercessory rituals tothe gods on behalf of the people.
The Soga family emergedas the real political power in Japan. [Image source: http://library.georgetown.edu/dept/speccoll/guac/japan_04/hiroshige_soga.jpg]
Four Noble Truths 1. Life is full of suffering. 2. Suffering is caused by desire. 3. Eliminate desire to eliminate suffering. 4. Seek union with Brahma.
Union with Brahma is nirvana. The only way to end the painful cycle of reincarnation. Birth Death
Over the next four centuries, Japan developed close ties with China, adopting and adapting many elements of Chinese culture, suchas art, . . . [Image source: http://home.flash.net/~cameron/japanese_painting/shikishi_tanzaku/chikuu_landscape.jpg]
. . . medicine, . . . [Image source: http://bibliodyssey.blogspot.com/2007/07/kyushu-medical-books-two.html]
. . . astronomy, . . . [Image source: http://www.crystalinks.com/orionjapanwoman.jpg]
The Japanese ruling class adopted astrong central government based on the principles of Kung Fu-tzu.
The teachings of Kung Fu-tzuadopted by the Japanese included: • ancestor worship • respect for elders and those in positions of authority
Five Confucian Relationships Ruler - Ruled Husband - Wife Father - Son Older Brother - Younger Brother Homeboy - Homeboy
After becoming the leading court official in A.D. 593, Prince Shotoku encouraged further learning from Chinese civilization. [Image source: http://www.baxleystamps.com/litho/ogawa/kokka_gallery_jp3-1.jpg]
Inspired by Confucian ideas on government, Prince Shotoku set forth the general principles of Japanese government in the Seventeen Article Constitution. [Image source: http://www.sarudama.com/history/images/shotoku.jpg]
The Fujiwara clan seized power in the name of the emperor, following the death of Prince Shotoku.
Taika ReformsA.D. 646 • Taika means “great change” • initiated by Tenji Mikado
Tenji Mikado • proclaimed himself ruler and landlord of all Japan • established a bureaucracy to carry-out government duties -centralized taxation and land distribution
In lieu of a civil service examination system, officials gained their posts through family ties. [Image source:
Much of Japan continued to remain under the control of regional clan leaders. [Image source:
Japan built its first permanent capital in A.D. 710 at Nara – a smaller version of China’s Changan. [Image source: http://www.sfusd.k12.ca.us/schwww/sch618/japan/Architecture/Asuka3.jpg]
Buddhist fervor reached its peak durirng the Nara Period with the completion of the Todaiji Temple in A.D. 752. [Image source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/a/a8/Todaiji_temple_in_Nara_Japan_2.jpg/800px-Todaiji_temple_in_Nara_Japan_2.jpg]
During the Nara Period the Japanese produced their first written literature, when scribes composed histories combining myths with actual events, and other writers compiled collections of poetry. [Image source: http://cache.eb.com/eb/image?id=42866&rendTypeId=4]
The Japanese established a new capitalat Heian (present-day Kyoto) in A.D. 794. [Image source: http://www.taleofgenji.org/images/heian_jingu_east.jpg]
Kyoto remained the capital ofJapan for more than 1,000 years. [Image source: http://hinamatsuri.files.wordpress.com/2007/06/k42.jpg]
The focus of Heian court life amongthe “dwellers among the clouds” was the pursuitof beauty. [Image source: http://www400.sos.louisiana.gov/archives/dolls/i-d-e2.JPG]