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# Day 1: 1. Hand out syllabus and lab1.1 2. Syllabus - homework policy 3. Lab safety

Day 1: 1. Hand out syllabus and lab1.1 2. Syllabus - homework policy 3. Lab safety - signed safety contract due Friday 4. Begin ch1 5. Explain lab report 6. HW: Ch1 HW#1 + Prelab ?’s. Ch1.1 – 1.6, 1.8 Chemical Foundations Scientific Method 1. O 2. H 3. E 4. R 5. A 6. C .

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## Day 1: 1. Hand out syllabus and lab1.1 2. Syllabus - homework policy 3. Lab safety

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1. Day 1: 1. Hand out syllabus and lab1.1 2. Syllabus - homework policy 3. Lab safety - signed safety contract due Friday 4. Begin ch1 5. Explain lab report 6. HW: Ch1 HW#1 + Prelab ?’s

2. Ch1.1 – 1.6, 1.8 Chemical Foundations Scientific Method 1. O 2. H 3. E 4. R 5. A 6. C

3. Units of Measurement ‘We deal in measurements, not numbers!’ Giga . . Mega . . Kilo Hecta Deka Basic deci centi milli . .micro . . nano . . pico Units G . . M . . K H D U d c m . .μ. . n . . p (Basic units: meters, liters, grams, kelvins, seconds, moles, etc) Ex1) 1 Gm = ______ nm 1 pm = ______ m

4. G . . M . . K H D U d c m . .μ. . n . . p Most common use of metric prefixes in chemistry: 1 liter = 1 dm3 1 ml = 1cm3 Ex2) 1 liter = _____ cm3 10 cm3 = _____ L

5. ‘We deal in measurements, not numbers! These measurements contain a certain amount of uncertainty.’ Using density as a way to learn about uncertainty: Density is the first chemistry method to discover an unknown substance.

6. ‘We deal in measurements, not numbers! These measurements contain a certain amount of uncertainty.’ (Red is our international color of DON’T COPY) Precision – how many sig digs a device gives Accuracy – device’s agreement with the true value (is it broken) More precision: Less precision Mass of unknown: ________ g _________ g Volume of unknown: ________ mL _________ mL or or Great precision/ Great precision/ great accuracy: bad accuracy _________ cm3 _________ cm3

7. ‘We deal in measurements, not numbers! These measurements contain a certain amount of uncertainty.’ Sig Dig Calcs Ex1)

8. ‘We deal in measurements, not numbers! These measurements contain a certain amount of uncertainty.’ Sig Dig Calcs Ex2) Find the combined density of the 2 Iron pieces. Mass 1: ___________ g Vol 1: ___________ cm3 Mass 2: ___________ g Vol 2: ___________ cm3

9. ‘We deal in measurements, not numbers! These measurements contain a certain amount of uncertainty.’ Dimensional Analysis Ex3) Convert the density from Ex1 to kg/m3 . Ch1 HW#1 p32+ 20,25,27,29(a,b),31(g),33,53(kg/m3),55 + Lab1.1 Pre-lab

10. (This would get a better score if it was spread out.) Kent Purser (You can find a template of this online.) Lab1.1 – Scientific Method Objective: To practice the scientific method through investigations with a candle. (+1) Procedure: Conduct various experiments on a candle. (+1) Prelab Questions (+1 each) 1. : 9. Data Tables (+10)

11. Graphs (+5) Temp (oC) 0:00 0:30 1:00 1:30 2:00 Time (sec) Conclusions (+2 each) 1. : 7. Total: 40 points! Further Investigations (+2 XC each!)

12. Ch1 HW#1 p32+ 20,25,27,29(a,b),31(g),33,53(kg/m3),55 20. A student performed an analysis of a sample for the following calcium content and got the following results: 14.02% 14.91% 14.88% 14.91% The actual amount is 15.70%. what conclusions can you draw about the accuracy and precision of these results? 25. How many significant figures are in each of the following? a) 12 b) 1098 c) 2001 d) 2.001 x 103 e) 0.0000101 f) 1.01 x 10-5 g) 100. h) 22.04030

13. Ch1 HW#1 p32+ 20,25,27,29(a,b),31(g),33,53(kg/m3),55 20. A student performed an analysis of a sample for the following calcium content and got the following results: 14.02% 14.91% 14.88% 14.91% The actual amount is 15.70%. what conclusions can you draw about the accuracy and precision of these results? -very precise (all trials came out dead-on each other) - lacks accuracy (not close enough to the actual value) maybe the Triple Beam Balance was off? 25. How many significant figures are in each of the following? a) 12 b) 1098 c) 2001 d) 2.001 x 103 e) 0.0000101 f) 1.01 x 10-5 g) 100. h) 22.04030

14. Ch1 HW#1 p32+ 20,25,27,29(a,b),31(g),33,53(kg/m3),55 20. A student performed an analysis of a sample for the following calcium content and got the following results: 14.02% 14.91% 14.88% 14.91% The actual amount is 15.70%. what conclusions can you draw about the accuracy and precision of these results? -very precise (all trials came out dead-on each other) - lacks accuracy (not close enough to the actual value) maybe the Triple Beam Balance was off? 25. How many significant figures are in each of the following? a) 12 b) 1098 c) 2001 2 4 4 d) 2.001 x 103 e) 0.0000101 f) 1.01 x 10-5 4 g) 100. h) 22.04030

15. Ch1 HW#1 p32+ 20,25,27,29(a,b),31(g),33,53(kg/m3),55 20. A student performed an analysis of a sample for the following calcium content and got the following results: 14.02% 14.91% 14.88% 14.91% The actual amount is 15.70%. what conclusions can you draw about the accuracy and precision of these results? -very precise (all trials came out dead-on each other) - lacks accuracy (not close enough to the actual value) maybe the Triple Beam Balance was off? 25. How many significant figures are in each of the following? a) 12 b) 1098 c) 2001 2 4 4 d) 2.001 x 103 e) 0.0000101 f) 1.01 x 10-5 4 3 3 g) 100. h) 22.04030 3? 7

16. 27. Round off each of the following numbers to three significant figures, and write the answer in standard exponential notation. a) 312.54 b) 0.00031254 c) 31,254,000 d) 0.31254 e) 31.254 x 10-3 29. Perform the following mathematical operations, and express each result to the correct number of significant figures. a) 97.381 + 4.2502 + 0.99195 = b) 171.5 + 72.915 – 8.23 =

17. 27. Round off each of the following numbers to three significant figures, and write the answer in standard exponential notation. a) 312.54 b) 0.00031254 313 0.000313 c) 31,254,000 d) 0.31254 31,300,000 0.313 No zeros! e) 31.254 x 10-3 31.3 x 10-3 29. Perform the following mathematical operations, and express each result to the correct number of significant figures. a) 97.381 + 4.2502 + 0.99195 = b) 171.5 + 72.915 – 8.23 =

18. 27. Round off each of the following numbers to three significant figures, and write the answer in standard exponential notation. a) 312.54 b) 0.00031254 313 0.000313 c) 31,254,000 d) 0.31254 31,300,000 0.313 No zeros! e) 31.254 x 10-3 31.3 x 10-3 29. Perform the following mathematical operations, and express each result to the correct number of significant figures. a) 97.381 + 4.2502 + 0.99195 = b) 171.5 + 72.915 – 8.23 = 102.62315 236.185 102.623 236.2

19. 31. Perform the following mathematical operations, and express each result to the correct number of significant figures. g) 9.5 + 4.1 + 2.8 + 3.175 4

20. 31. Perform the following mathematical operations, and express each result to the correct number of significant figures. g) 9.5 + 4.1 + 2.8 + 3.175 4 19.575 19.6 4 4 4.9 = 5

21. 33. Perform each conversion. M . . K H D U d c m . . μ . . n a) 8.43 cm to millimeters = b) 2.41x102 cm to meters c) 294.5 nm to centimeters d) 1.445x104 m to kilometers e) 235.3 m to millimeters f) 903.3 nm to micrometers

22. 33. Perform each conversion. M . . K H D U d c m . . μ . . n a) 8.43 cm to millimeters = 84.3 mm b) 2.41x102 cm to meters = 0.0241x102 m c) 294.5 nm to centimeters = 0.00002945 cm d) 1.445x104 m to kilometers e) 235.3 m to millimeters f) 903.3 nm to micrometers

23. 33. Perform each conversion. M . . K H D U d c m . . μ . . n a) 8.43 cm to millimeters = 84.3 mm b) 2.41x102 cm to meters = 0.0241x102 m c) 294.5 nm to centimeters = 0.00002945 cm d) 1.445x104 m to kilometers = 1.445x101 km e) 235.3 m to millimeters = 0.2353 mm f) 903.3 nm to micrometers = 0.9033 μm

24. 53. The density of aluminum is 2.70 . Express this value in units of kilograms per cubic meter. 55. A star is estimated to have a mass of 2 x 1036kg. Assuming a sphere of radius 7.0 x 105km, calc the density in g/cm3.

25. 53. The density of aluminum is 2.70 . Express this value in units of kilograms per cubic meter. 2.70 g 1 kg 1,000,000 cm3 cm3 1000 g 1 m3 55. A star is estimated to have a mass of 2 x 1036kg. Assuming a sphere of radius 7.0 x 105km, calc the density in g/cm3. = 2700 kg/m3

26. 53. The density of aluminum is 2.70 . Express this value in units of kilograms per cubic meter. 2.70 g 1 kg 1,000,000 cm3 cm3 1000 g 1 m3 55. A star is estimated to have a mass of 2 x 1036kg. Assuming a sphere of radius 7.0 x 105km, calc the density in g/cm3. 2x1039 g 4/3.π.(7.0x1010cm)3 = 2700 kg/m3 = 1,392,025.7 g/cm3 = 1,000,000 g/cm3

27. Lab1.1 Pre-Lab Questions 1. What is your prediction for massing the candle at the beginning and end of the lab? 2. What is your prediction of the time difference to distinguish the flame with different size beakers. 3. What is your prediction to what happens to the lit match. Why? 4. What is your prediction to what happens to the lit candle. Why? 5. What is your prediction to what happens to the lit candle. Why? 6. Web search: What does cobalt chloride test paper tests for? 7. What substance might charred deposits be evidence of? 8. Web search: What causes limewater to turn cloudy? 9. What is your prediction of the measurements of temperature? Take a chance, what do you think the starting and ending temperatures will be? Can you predict using Celsius?

28. Ch1.7, 1.9 – Temperature, Matter How cold is cold? Vol -300 0 100 Temp (°C)

29. Temperature Since (-) #’s stink Kelvin designed a thermometer, modeled after Celsius, but put zero as coldest temp. How cold is cold? Temperature – measure of the degree of hotness or coldness of a substance Absolute zero – coldest temperature. No molecular motion -273oC = ______ K 0oC = ______ K 20oC = ______ K 100oC = ______ K Outer space 2 – 4 K Laboratory 0.0000002 K Vol -300 0 100 Temp (°C) oC + 273 = K *Kelvin is always bigger

30. F  C Conversions

31. Classification of Matter Matter – anything that occupies space and has mass. States of Matter solid liquid gas (plasma) Volume: Shape:

32. Classification of Matter Matter – anything that occupies space and has mass. States of Matter solid liquid gas (plasma) Volume: definite definite variable variably large Shape: definite variable variable variably large Elements – simplest forms of matter (periodic table) ex: iron, aluminum, oxygen Compounds – combinations of elements chemically attached to each other ex: NaCl (table salt), H2O, CH4 (methane)

33. Classification of Matter Matter – anything that occupies space and has mass. States of Matter solid liquid gas (plasma) Volume: definite definite variable variably large Shape: definite variable variable variably large Elements – simplest forms of matter (periodic table) ex: iron, aluminum, oxygen Compounds – combinations of elements chemically attached to each other ex: NaCl (table salt), H2O, CH4 (methane) Mixtures Homogeneous mixture – substances mixed together that are the same throughout. ex: air in this room, solutions Heterogeneous mixture – substances mixed, not uniform ex: salad, muddy water, atmosphere

34. Classification of Matter Matter – anything that occupies space and has mass. States of Matter solid liquid gas (plasma) Volume: definite definite variable variably large Shape: definite variable variable variably large How would you separate mixtures?

35. States of Matter solid liquid gas (plasma) Volume: definite definite variable variably large Shape: definite variable variable variably large How would you separate mixtures? Properties of Matter Physical Properties – deal with the physical state: solid, liquid, gas (table) ex: mass, volume, density, boiling point, melting point, malleability (smash it), ductility (make into wire), etc. These properties don’t change what the substance is Physical Changes – change any of these ex: boil, freeze, condense, dissolve, break, split, creek, crush, etc.

36. States of Matter solid liquid gas (plasma) Volume: definite definite variable variably large Shape: definite variable variable variably large How would you separate mixtures? Separate mixtures using physical properties. Exs: magnetism, solubility, density, filtration distillation – the process of separation based on volatility (in a mixture, substance might vaporize at different temps) chromatography – mobile phases moving relative to stationary phases.

37. States of Matter solid liquid gas (plasma) Volume: definite definite variable variably large Shape: definite variable variable variably large How would you separate a compound?

38. States of Matter solid liquid gas (plasma) Volume: definite definite variable variably large Shape: definite variable variable variably large How would you separate a compound? Chemical Properties – deal with how a substance chemically reacts with other substances. Chemical Change – substances transform into new substances with different properties. Can’t easily be changed back. Evidence of Chemical Reaction: 1. Color change 2. Gas produced 3. Precipitate formed – solid comes out of the solution Ex: AgNO3(aq) + NaCl(aq) NaNO3 (aq) + AgCl (s) reactants products

39. Particulate Models: 1. Physical Change: 2. Chemical Change:

40. Lab1.1 Scientific Method Ch1 HW#2 p34+ 47,65,68,70,73(K only)

41. Lab1.1 Scientific Method - due 3 days

42. Ch1 HW#2 p34+ 47,65,68,70,73(K only) 47. A person a has a temperature of 102.5˚F. What is this temperature on the Celsius scale? on the Kelvin scale? TC = _____°C = ________ K 65.Classify the each of the following as a mixture or a pure substance. a) water b) blood c) the ocean d) iron e) brass f) uranium g) wine h) leather i) a solution of ethanol and water

43. Ch1 HW#2 p34+ 47,65,68,70,73(K only) 47. A person a has a temperature of 102.5˚F. What is this temperature on the Celsius scale? on the Kelvin scale? Google it! TC = = 39.17°C = 312.2 K 65.Classify the each of the following as a mixture or a pure substance. a) water b) blood c) the ocean d) iron e) brass f) uranium g) wine h) leather i) a solution of ethanol and water

44. Ch1 HW#2 p34+ 47,65,68,70,73(K only) 47. A person a has a temperature of 102.5˚F. What is this temperature on the Celsius scale? on the Kelvin scale? Google it! TC = 39.17°C = 312.2 K 65.Classify the each of the following as a mixture or a pure substance. a) water (distilled? then pure substance  compound) b) blood (mixture. homo or hetero? IDK ask a bio) c) the ocean (mixture. hetero or homo?) d) iron pure substance - element e) brass pure substance? (metallic compound, alloy of Cu and Zn) f) uranium g) wine h) leather i) a solution of ethanol and water

45. Ch1 HW#2 p34+ 47,65,68,70,73(K only) 47. A person a has a temperature of 102.5˚F. What is this temperature on the Celsius scale? on the Kelvin scale? 65.Classify the each of the following as a mixture or a pure substance. a) water (distilled? then pure substance  compound) b) blood (mixture. homo or hetero? IDK ask a bio) c) the ocean (mixture. hetero or homo?) d) iron pure substance - element e) brass pure substance? (metallic compound, alloy of Cu and Zn) f) uranium pure substance - element g) wine mixture. home or hetero? h) leather good question – mixture? i) a solution of ethanol and water heterogeneous mixture

46. 68. A mole of lithium gas contains 6.02 x 1023 helium atoms. How many helium atoms are there in a millimole of helium? in a kilomole? 70. You are in Paris and went to buy some peaches for lunch. The sign in the fruit stand indicates that peaches are 11.5 francs per kilogram. Given that there are approximately 5 francs to the dollar, calculate what a pound of peaches will cost in dollars.

47. 68. A mole of lithium gas contains 6.02 x 1023 helium atoms. How many helium atoms are there in a millimole of helium? in a kilomole? M . . K H D U d c m . . μ . . n 6.02x1026 atoms in a millimole 6.02x1020 atoms in a kilomole 70. You are in Paris and went to buy some peaches for lunch. The sign in the fruit stand indicates that peaches are 11.5 francs per kilogram. Given that there are approximately 5 francs to the dollar, calculate what a pound of peaches will cost in dollars.

48. 68. A mole of lithium gas contains 6.02 x 1023 helium atoms. How many helium atoms are there in a millimole of helium? in a kilomole? M . . K H D U d c m . . μ . . n 6.02x1026 atoms in a millimole 6.02x1020 atoms in a kilomole 70. You are in Paris and went to buy some peaches for lunch. The sign in the fruit stand indicates that peaches are 11.5 francs per kilogram. Given that there are approximately 5 francs to the dollar, calculate what a pound of peaches will cost in dollars. 11.5 f 1 \$ 1kg kg 5 f 2.2 lbs = 1.045 \$/lb  1\$/lb sig digs)

49. 73. Convert the following Celsius temperatures to Kelvin. a. boiling temp of ethyl alcohol, 78.10C. = b. cold winter day, -250C. = c. lowest possible temp, -2730C. d. melting point of NaCl, 8010C.

50. 73. Convert the following Celsius temperatures to Kelvin. a. boiling temp of ethyl alcohol, 78.10C. = 351K b. cold winter day, -250C. = 248  250K c. lowest possible temp, -2730C. d. melting point of NaCl, 8010C.

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