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HFC/Cable Modem

HFC/Cable Modem

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HFC/Cable Modem

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  1. HFC/Cable Modem • Conventional CATV Network • Hybrid Fiber/Coax • HFC network in Korea • Market forecast

  2. Program provider all coaxial cable Microwave/ optical link Headend STU Trunk amplifier Split amplifier Tree & branch Program provider fiber and coaxial cable Microwave/ optical link ONU (hub) ONU Headend STU Tree & branch Conventional CATV Network • CATV (Community Antenna Television) • Network architecture

  3. CATV 망 구성도

  4. Cable modem • Cable modem • 현재로서는 가장 경쟁력 있는 인터넷 접속 • MCNS (Multimedia Cable Network System) 규격 확정 • 국내개발동향 • 삼성전자: 인포레이저 모뎀을 두루넷, 드림라인,은평중계유선에 공급, 캐나다 코제코케이블(1만8천대), 비디오트론(1만대) • 콤텍시스팀, 쌍용정보통신 • LG, 현대, 성미는 개발중단 • 국외업체 • Motorola: 두루넷 선점 • 3com: 하나로통신 포석 • Cisco: 삼성과 드림라인 공략 (uBR7223 라우터 )

  5. 케이블모뎀 서비스 구성도

  6. HFC (1) • Hybrid Fiber /Coax • Evolution from CATV network • CATV(broadcasting) + Bidirectional Applications • VOD(Video on Demand) , phone • Network architecture Program provider FTTLA Microwave/ optical link Headend ONU B STU Tree & branch PSTN BISDN

  7. Control + Upstream telephony Downstream telephony Digital interactive services Analog CATV MHz 5 40 50 550 575 600 625 1000 HFC (2) • Modulation Techniques • Frequency Allocation

  8. HFC (3) • Advantages • Utilizing existing coax cables • STB’s costs are relatively cheap. ($175-200 vs. $400-500 of SDV) • accept digital and analog video streams • Technical Issues • Carrier Serving Area : Bandwidth vs size • Building nodes that will serve 200 to 600 homes instead of the usual 2000+ homes per node of a typical CATV network. • They can use already installed dark fibers to share homes. • Frequency Plan • RF Modulation Technology : QAM vs. VSB • Cable modem really works? • Upstream Bandwidth Limitation and Multiple access • Noise Problem : Funneling and Ingress • amateur radio operators share the upstream freq. Between 4 and 50 MHz • The coax acts as a giant antenna

  9. 75% 9.8M Home passed 70% 9.2M H/P 42% 5.4M H/P Year 2002 Year 1998 Year 2000 HFC Network in Korea • KEPCO’s Cable TV Network • 750MHz, bi-directional Network • 42% Home pass as of 1998, 75% by 2002

  10. Rainbow Status & Plan 단 계 추 진 기 간 추 진 내 용 사업준비 ~ 97.8.31 • 기본 사업계획 및 타당성 검토 완료 • 추진 조직 구축 • 제휴 사 협약 1차 시범 서비스 97.9.1 ~ 12.31 • 기본 인터넷 접속 서비스 (1개 SO, 100가구) 2차 시범 서비스 98.1.1 ~ 98.6.30 • 기본 인터넷 접속 서비스 (5개SO, 1000가구) 상용 서비스 98.7 ~ • 서울,경기 지역 상용서비스(98.7) • 6대 도시 서비스 확대(‘99) • Contents/Education 서비스 (99.1) • 전국 주요 도시 서비스 개시(2000) • E-Commerce (2000.1)

  11. Nationwide 55 SO 1998 1999 2000 Metropolitan area (Busan, Taejun, Kwangju,..) 44 SO Seoul 16 SO Service Area Deployment • 1st Group SO: 53 Area from 1995, KEPCO Affiliate 32 SO • 2nd Group SO: 24 Area from 1998, KEPCO Affiliate 23 SO

  12. HFC service deployments and price comparisons *Source: Telephony, Oct.6,1997

  13. Worldwide CM Market forecast Source: Dataquest

  14. 주요 Cable modem vendor

  15. FITL • Motivations for FITL • FITL Trends • FTTC introduction • KT FITL Development Plan • FLC family

  16. Motivations for FITL • End-to-End digitalization of telecommunication networks • Trunk : 100% (1997) • Interoffice : 100% (1998) • Access : < 1% (1995) • Construction of broadband service platform • Advanced subscriber line operation and maintenance • Copper access : 77% of total problems • Congestion of MDF in CO • Solving the overload of underground facilities (manholes, ducts) • Traffic congestion : difficulty of construction • Wider Service Areas • More than 300 COs in Korea • More Bandwidth • Multimedia services, long term B-ISDN services

  17. FITL Trends • FTTO (Fiber To the Office) • No objections, but priority • COT,RT • FLC (Fiber Loop Carrier) • 국내 주요건물 2500동에 공급 • FLC의 다변화 및 소용량화 추세 • FLC-A/B, FLC-D, FLC-S, FLC-I • 소용량 광전송장치 (4T1) • 광모뎀 (1T1) • 기존의 300가입자 이상에서 50가입자 이상이면 광 공급 • 전화국 광역화에 따른 가입자망의 망구성(layered structure)을 용이하게 하는 플랫폼 개념의 도입 추세 • IDLC 기능 및 운용관리시스팀(TIMS, SLMOS, ANSWERS, DELMOSNS)과의 연동성 확보가 이슈 • 인터넷연동 및 xDSL 인터페이스의 요구가 예상됨

  18. FITL Trends • FTTC (Fiber To The Curb) • FTTZ (Fiber to The Zone) : Japan • HDT, ONU using xDSL • FLC-C, 차세대 FLC (ATM-PON에 기반을 둔 FSAN compliant 방식) • 향후 5년간 가장 큰 시장으로 확장 예정 • 2002년부터는 동선 전량 공급 • 신축아파트부터 구축 예정이었으나 경쟁사업자의 공격적인 마케팅 전략으로 수익창출이 예상되는 지역은 기존 동선 포설지역이라 할지라도 광으로 공급예정 • FTTH (Fiber To The Home) • Ultimate goal (BISDN), but economy issues to be solved • 2005년부터 구축예정 • Home Network 구성 및 서비스창출이 관건

  19. RT1 ONU CO RT2 HDT Business Area Apartment Complex COT FTTC ONU FTTO RT3 Home FTTH FITL Structure

  20. KT FITL Development Plan • Domestic development and manufacturing • Schedule • 1995: FTTO development and commercialization • 1998: FTTC development and commercialization • 2002: FTTH development and commercialization • Mature FITL in 2015 • ~ 100 % for FTTO, 50 % for FTTC, 25 % for FTTH • ~ US $ 12 Billion investment by 2006 • ~ US $ 30 Billion investment by 2015 • KT FLC (Fiber Loop Carrier) • FLC-B : for FTTB • Vendors: LG, Samsung, Samwoo, Sungmi • FLC-C : for FTTC • Vendors: LG, Samsung, Samwoo, Daewoo, Hanhwa • FLC-H : for FTTH • future plan

  21. FLC 시스팀 특성비교 * FLC-A (기본형), FLC-B (Fiber-To-The-Building), FLC-C (FTTCurb) * compact FLC(FLC-S): 채널셀프의 용량을 현 120가입자에서 300/600가입자로 확장, *FLC-I:FLC-S에 IDLC기능 * FLC-D: 중소용량 FLC로 KT가 규격을 작성하고 업체 자율에 의한 개발임, *FLC-E: 소용량 FLC

  22. ONU ONU FTTC Introduction • Copper drop from curb • High sharing factor • Limited bandwidth • Remote powering • near term cost effective with copper • Evolution to FTTH (ONU to the inside of home) • PON vs ADS subscriber curb passive/ active STU copper CT RN

  23. FLC-C 주요기능 (1) • 100가입자 이상의 수요밀집지역에 적합한 FTTC용 시스템 • xDSL적용으로 고속Internet 서비스 제공 : ADSL, VDSL, MDSL • ATM back bone에 의한 고속데이터 회선 집적화 • 다양한 망 구성으로 최적 설계 가능 : Star, Double Star, Ring • 손쉽고 경제적인 망 확장 및 가입자 수용 • ONU에서 광대역 및 협대역 보드 혼용실장으로 경제적인 망 구성 • 모듈화 구조로 경제적인 서비스 추가

  24. FLC-C 주요기능 (2) • V5.2에 의한 POTS, BRI 및 PRI-ISDN서비스 제공 • Nx64, T1, E1 및 HDSL, MDSL제공으로 SOHO 서비스 수용 • 고속Internet서비스를 위한 ATM망 접속 : DS3, STM-1 • 기존 ISP접속을 위한 10 BaseT 접속 포트 제공 • In-Door, Out-Door Cabinet 적용 • Q3 interface에 의한 통합 망관리 시스템 : FMS

  25. STM-1/STM-4c IDLC(V5.2) ONU POTS, ISDN STB ATU-R ONU E1, T1 Data ONU STM-1/STM-4c DS3,STM-1 ONU PABX, LAN Internet 10BaseT STM-1 ONU ONU STM-1/STM-4c ONU OLT • ONU FLC-C 망구조

  26. HDT와 ONU(cabinet형) 의 구조

  27. Video Head End FMS TV LAN FMS STM-1 xDSL ACCESS NETWORK STB LAN ONU ATM/SDH Core Network ACCESS NETWORK OLT PC-NIC STM-1 DS3 STM-1 DS3 ONU ATU-R STM-1 LAN STM-1 E1 NMS SOHO ISDN xDSL POTS Leased ISP Internet KIX B-RAS or ATM Router ATM/FR/PDH Full Service Network

  28. VP Cross-Connection • 구조가 단순하여 구현이 저렴 • end-to-end service의 변화에 따른 access network의 영향이 없음 • 최적의 solution (현재 access network을 VC Cross-connector/Switch로 하는 standard의 미비) • ATM Switch - STB간 UNI signaling • VB5.1과 유사한 구조

  29. PVC • VP cross connector로서의 PVC 구성 시 VPI/VCI 변환 1(x1’/32) 3(x1’/33) ATM-SW HDT (VP-Xc) ONU#1 (VP-Xc) STB 1(x1/32) 2(x3/32) 3(x1/33) 2(x2’/32) STB 4(x1/32) ONU#16 (VP-Xc) 4(x3’/32) STB Internal VPI • VP-Xc : VP Cross Connector • (x/y) : VPI/VCI

  30. PVC (STM-1 one port) • STM-1 1PORT를 VC cross-connection PVC용으로 제공 • STM-1 1port로 Full PVC 구성 시의 VPI/VCI 변환 • STM-1 1port에 1024 가입자 수용 시 가입자당 1 connection을 가정하면 HDT에서 1024 VC connection 용량이 필요 1(x/32) 2(x/33) 3(x/34) 1(x1/32) ATM-SW HDT (VC-Xc) ONU#1 (VP-Xc) STB 2(x2/32) STB ONU#16 (VP-Xc) 3(x3/32) STB Internal VPI/VCI • VP-Xc : VP Cross Connector • VC-Xc : VC Cross Connector • (x/y) : (VPI/VCI)

  31. SVC S1(x1’/5) U1(x1’/y1) ATM-SW HDT (VP-Xc) ONU#1 (VP-Xc) S1(x1/5) U1(x1/y1) S2(x2/5) U2(x2/y2) STB S2(x2’/5) U2(x2’/y2) STB S3(x3/5) U3(x3/y3) ONU#16 (VP-Xc) STB S3(x3’/5) U3(x3’/y3) STB Internal VPI Q.2931/UNI4.0 Q.2931/UNI4.0 AAL5 AAL5 ATM ATM ATM PHY PHY PHY • x1 = x1’인 경우 STB에서는 VPCI translation table이 필요 • S1,2…: Signaling Cell • U1,2…: User Cell • (x/ y) : (VPI/VCI)

  32. Comparisons of DLC and IDLC 64kbps 64kbps POTS M D F C H C H C H DS1E DS1E ISDN DLC M U X M U X STM-1 P O T S P A B X LE DS1 DS1 DID DS1(E) DS1(E) Leased Line Leased Line RT (Building) COT (CO) 2048kbps 64kbps DS1E A T M M U X A T M M U X V5 POTS IDLC CH DS1E STM-4c ISDN LE DS1 DS1(E) DS1(E) Leased Line Lease Line HDT (CO) ONU (Subscriber)

  33. PON • Passive Optical Network Introduction • Multiple Access Techniques • TDMA • Ranging Protocol • WDMA • Dense WDMA (Direct detection) • Spectrum splicing • SCMA • CDMA

  34. PON Introduction • Passive optical network • Physical star, but logical bus • No powering of remote electronics • Eliminates need for conditioned enclosures • Transparent to signal formats • Simplifies future upgrades • New loop engineering options • self healing • multiple access techniques • ranging protocol needed (propagation delay, timing) • optical power leveling

  35. ATM-PON Framework • Reference Configuration of Broadband OAN Q3 Access Network system management function R/S S/R ONU Service node function ODN OLT ONU UNI AF IFPON SNI (a) (T) VB5.1/2,V5.1/2, TR303 etc stemming from ITU-T Rec. G.982

  36. PASSIVE STAR COUPLER/ SPLITTER CO l0 l0 FEEDER t l0 TIME SLOT ALLOCATED TO SUBSCRIBER 1 CH1 CH2 . . CHN TIME DEMUX RCVR Time Division Multiple Access (TDMA)

  37. Ranging protocol • Ranging is a function to measure the distance between the OLT and each ONU to avoid collisions between upstream cells in the ATM-PON systems • The equalized round trip delay for each ONU can be constant • delays due to opto-electrical and electro-optical conversion in the ONU and OLT • PON signal processing in the ONU and OLT • optical fiber propagation delay from the OLT to the ONU (or vice versa)

  38. MUX/ DMUX PON signal processing PON signal processing Schematic diagram of Ranging < ONU side > < OLT side > OLT phase specification point (UP) ONU phase specification point (UP) Td Tpd TiO2 TiS2 Phase detection point R S O/E E/O ODN UNI E/O O/E S R Tpd TiO1 Ts TiS1 OLT phase specification point (DW) ONU phase specification point (DW) Teqd = TiS1 + Tpd + TiO1 + Ts + Td + TiO2 + Tpd + TiS2 = Const

  39. N CO 2 l1 1 l2 FEEDER WDM l lN RCVR 1 WDM RCVR 2 RCVR N Wavelength Division Multiple Access (WDMA)

  40. CO l0 LED spectrum l0 HD WDM FEEDER l0 RCVR 1 HD WDM RCVR 2 RCVR N WDMA :Spectrum Splicing

  41. PASSIVE STAR COUPLER/ SPLITTER N CO 2 l0 1 l0 FEEDER l f1 f2 fN l0 DEMOD 1 RCVR DEMOD 2 DEMOD N SubCarrier division Multiple Access (SCMA) mw-splitter

  42. Noise Data Source Data Sink Rate 1/T Rate 1/T Code Code Rate n/T Rate n/T Code division Multiple Access(CDMA) • does not require a complicated MAC protocol • has a benefit for a relatively high number of low bit rate connections • hard to find optical orthogonal codes (OOCs)

  43. FTTC Powering • Network Interface Functions - BORSCHT • FTTC Powering Options • End Loop Powering Options • Powering Comparisons

  44. Network Interface Functions • Battery (-48V) ~200mW / phone • Overvoltage Protection • Ringing Voltage ~230mW / phone • Supervision • Codec ~330mW / Line • Hybrid • Test

  45. Localized ONU Customer HDT power Battery Locally Shared ONU Customer HDT Power node Battery Centralized ONU Customer HDT power Battery Power node Battery FTTC Powering Options

  46. End-Loop Powering Options • Centralized (network fed) • -130Vdc or +/- 130 Vdc over copper pair • 60 Vac or -85 Vdc over coax • Localized (residence fed) • Locally shared (pedestal fed, perhaps by telcos) • Solar photovoltaic • Other? (e.g. small fuel cells) • Customer-provided

  47. Powering Comparisons

  48. FSAN 표준화동향 • FSAN의 역할과 진행사항 • FSAN working group 연구진행사항

  49. Fibre = $10X Copper = $X VDSL APON Filling the Broadband Access Chasm

  50. BUS RES CATV Total >356 Million 0 Bell South NTT DT FT SBC BT TI TEF KT BCE Dutch PTT GTE Telstra Eireann SingTel USWest SwissCom FSAN Market Total Lines (Millions)