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The Human Body

The Human Body

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The Human Body

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  1. The Human Body

  2. Organ Systems – groups of organs in the body that work together to form a specific task • Homeostasis – the maintenance of a constant internal state in a changing environment Body Organization

  3. The Integumentary System skin, hair, and nails

  4. Protects you by keeping water in the body and foreign substances out • Sense of touch • Helps regulate body temperature with sweat glands • Gets rid of waste • Largest organ of the body Functions of the Skin

  5. Epidermis • very thin top layer of the skin • most epidermal cells are dead • Dermis • lies beneath the epidermis • contains many other small structures • Subcutaneous Fat • bottom layer Layers of the Skin

  6. Hair follicle– where hair grows • Sweat gland– releases sweat, which regulates the body and gets rid of waste • Oil gland– releases oil, which keeps hair flexible and makes the skin waterproof • Blood vessels– transport blood to the skin; regulate body temperature Parts of the Skin

  7. Hair & Nails • both grow from the base of a follicle or root • only living cells are at the base and push old cells up • provide protection and hair helps regulate body temperature Other Parts of the Skin

  8. Melanin • chemical that determines color of the skin • a lot of melanin = darker skin • helps protect against UV radiation from the sun • Skin Cancer • abnormal growth of skin cells • can develop from prolonged exposure to UV radiation About the Skin

  9. Structure & Movement The Musculoskeletal System

  10. Smooth Muscle • found in the digestive tract and walls of blood vessels • involuntary(not under your control) • Cardiac Muscle • found only in the heart • involuntary(not under your control) • Skeletal Muscle • attached to your bones and allows you to move • can be involuntary or voluntary (you control the movement) Kinds of Muscle

  11. Tendons • connective tissue that attaches muscles to bones • when the muscle contracts, the bones are pulled up • Ex. contracting your bicep makes your arm move upward Tendons

  12. Lactic Acid • chemical produced by muscle cells during respiration • if muscles are worked too hard too quickly lactic acid can build up, this causes the muscles to burn or ache Muscle Fatigue

  13. Protection • ex. ribs protect heart, skull protects brain • Storage • store minerals and fat • Movement • muscles pull on bones to make them move • Blood cell formation • marrow inside the bones makes blood cells Function of Skeletal System

  14. Compact Bone • dense and rigid structure • no pores or open spaces • stores minerals (calcium and phosphorus) • Spongy Bone • many open spaces • provides strength and support Bone Structure

  15. Cartilage • soft, flexible tissue usually replaced by bone • also found on the ends of bones to ease friction and absorb shock • Marrow • soft tissue inside bone • red marrow produces blood cells • yellow marrow is found in long bones and stores fat Bone Structure

  16. a place where two or more bones meet • held together by ligaments- connective tissue that connects bone to bone. • Three kinds of joints: • Gliding Joint • bones gliding over one another (ex. wrist, vertebrae) • Ball-and-Socket Joint • allows movement in all directions (ex. shoulder, hip) • Hinge Joint - allows for bending at right angles (ex. knees, elbows) Joints

  17. Sprain • when a ligament is stretched too far or torn • Osteoporosis • bones become less dense and weak due to age or poor diet • Arthritis • swelling or stiffening of the joints Skeletal System Injuries & Disorders

  18. Communication & Control The Nervous & Endocrine Systems

  19. The Nervous System

  20. The nervous system acts as the body’s central command post. • It detects , processes, and responds to information in the body • Communication occurs using electrical impulses.

  21. The basic unit of the nervous system is the Neuron- a specialized nerve cell that transfers messages in the form of electrical impulses. • Three parts of a neuron: • cell body – normal cell structure • dendrite – branch-like structures used to receive impulses • axon – long, tail-like structure covered in a myelin sheath (fat) used to send impulses Neurons

  22. Sensory Neurons – gather information about what is happening in and around the body • Motor Neurons – send impulses from the central nervous system to other systems of the body • Nerve – collection of axons bundled together with blood vessels and connective tissue Information Collection & Delivery

  23. Peripheral Nervous System (PNS) • all of the parts of the nervous system except the brain and spinal cord • uses specialized structures call nerves to carry information between parts of the body Peripheral Nervous System (PNS)

  24. Central Nervous System (CNS) • receives messages from the peripheral nervous system and responds by sending messages to the motor neurons • made up of the brain and spinal cord Central Nervous System (CNS)

  25. Main control center of the nervous system • Three main parts of the brain: • Cerebrum • Cerebellum • Medulla The Brain

  26. Cerebrum • largest part of the brain • where you think and carry most memories • location of all your senses • divided into two hemispheres • right side controls left side of the body, and vice versa Parts of the Brain

  27. Cerebellum • second-largest part of the brain • located beneath the back of the cerebrum • processes sensory information from muscles and joints (i.e. balance) Parts of the Brain

  28. Medulla • part of the brain that connects to the spinal cord • controls involuntary things like breathing, heart rate, blood pressure, and body temperature Parts of the Brain

  29. made of bundles of neurons that pass impulses to and from the brain • surrounded by the vertebrae (protective bones of the spine) • sensory neurons  spinal cord  brain  spinal cord  motor neurons Spinal Cord

  30. The Endocrine System pituitary, thyroid, gonads

  31. a collection of glands that secrete hormones into the body that regulate growth, development, and homeostasis Function

  32. chemical messengers released by an endocrine gland and carried through the blood to different parts of the body • ex. adrenaline - released when you are scared, angry, or excited to increase your heart rate and breathing Hormones

  33. Pituitary gland • “master gland” that controls other endocrine glands • located in the brain • makes human growth hormone (HGH) • Thyroid gland • controls how you use energy (metabolism) • in the neck • Parathyroid gland • regulates calcium levels in the blood • behind the thyroid gland Endocrine Glands

  34. Thymus gland • regulates the immune system to help fight disease • behind the heart • Adrenal glands • produces adrenalinto help the body respond to danger • sit atop the kidneys • Pancreas • regulates blood sugar levels by secreting insulin Endocrine Glands

  35. Ovaries (female) • produce estrogen to aid in female reproduction • released during puberty • Testes (male) • produce testosterone to aid in male reproduction • released during puberty Endocrine Glands

  36. Diabetes • the pancreas does not make insulin properly so the body cannot regulate blood sugar levels • patients must take insulin injections • Hormone Imbalances • Thyroid – controls metabolism, so this can lead to obesity • Pituitary – controls growth, so this can lead to stunted growth or being abnormally tall Diseases & Disorders

  37. The Respiratory System lungs, bronchi, diaphragm

  38. The exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide between living cells and their environment • Includes breathing and cellular respiration • The respiratory system is a group of organs that take in oxygen and release carbon dioxide Respiration

  39. Nose • air enters and exits through the nose • hairs and mucus in the nose trap dirt and particles • Pharynx (Throat) • splits into two tubes – the esophagus (leads to the stomach) and the trachea (leads to the lungs) • a tiny flap called the epiglottis covers the trachea to prevent food from going into the lungs when swallowed • Larynx • location of the vocal cords – two muscles stretched over the trachea that vibrate when air passes through them Upper Respiratory System

  40. Trachea • also known as the windpipe • Bronchus • the trachea splits into two separate bronchi, one going to each lung • the bronchi split further into smaller tubes called bronchioles • Alveoli • tiny air sacs located at the ends of each bronchiole • Covered in blood vessels so gas exchange can take place Lower Respiratory System

  41. the diaphragm is a dome-shaped muscle underneath your lungs • when it pushes downward you inhale, when it pushes upward you exhale • spasm of the diaphragm gives you hiccups Breathing

  42. Asthma • swelling and narrowing on the bronchioles • makes breathing more difficult • Emphysema • damage to the alveoli • trouble getting oxygen to the body • Lung cancer • can be caused by smoking Respiratory Disorders

  43. The Circulatory System heart, blood, arteries & veins

  44. moves blood throughout the body • carries nutrients to your cells • removes waste from your cells • carries chemicals through your body • regulates body temperature Functions

  45. Made of cardiac muscle • Right side of the heart pumps oxygen-poor blood to the lungs • Left side pumps oxygen-rich blood to the body • Four chambers separated by valves: • Upper = atriums (right and left) • Lower = ventricles (right and left) Heart

  46. Path of Blood

  47. Three types of blood vessels: • Artery • Carries blood AWAY from the heart • Vein • Carries blood TO the heart • Capillary • Tiny blood vessels that allow for gas and waste exchange between the blood and cells Blood Vessels

  48. Two types of circulation • Pulmonary Circulation – between the heart and lungs • Pulmonary artery – carries blood from heart to lungs • Pulmonary vein – carries blood from lungs to heart • Systemic Circulation – between the heart and body • Aorta – carries blood from heart to body • Superior/Inferior Vena Cava – carries blood from body to heart Circulation

  49. Atherosclerosis • build up of cholesterol in blood vessels • clogs pathways and blood flow becomes blocked • Heart Attacks • arteries going to the heart itself become blocked • heart muscle cells die Diseases & Disorders of the Circulatory System