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Respiratory System PowerPoint Presentation
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Respiratory System

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Respiratory System

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Respiratory System

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  1. Respiratory System

  2. Respiration 4 PROCESSES • Breathing • External Respiration • Internal Respiration • Cellular Respiration

  3. Trachea epiglottis thyroid cartilage vocal cord tracheal cartilages

  4. The Trachea posterior esophagus hyaline cartilage ring lumen Mucus membrane submucosa adventitia anterior

  5. The Trachea

  6. Vocal Cords • True vocal cords are inferior to false vocal cords • Sound is produced when expelled air is passing through the larynx over the vocal cords

  7. mucus cilia Epithelial Lining of the Trachea

  8. Lungs

  9. Alveoli

  10. Alveoli

  11. Alveoli alveolar macrophage type I alveolar cell O2 type II alveolar cell (surfactant secreting cell) CO2 pulmonary capillaries

  12. Erythrocytes Function- transport respiratory gases Lack mitochondria. Why?

  13. Hemoglobin- quaternary structure 2  chains and 2  chains Hemoglobin Structure 1 RBC contains 250 million hemoglobin molecules

  14. Uptake of Oxygen by Hemoglobin in the Lungs O2 binds to hemoglobin to form oxyhemoglobin High Concentration of O2 in Blood Plasma High pH of the Blood Plasma oxyhemoglobin O2

  15. O2 pickup CO2 release

  16. Unloading of Oxygen from Hemoglobin in the Tissues When O2is releaseddeoxyhemoglobin Low Concentration of O2 in Blood Plasma Lower pH of the Blood Plasma

  17. O2 releaseCO2 pickup

  18. Carbon Dioxide Chemistry in the Blood CO2 + H2O H2CO3  HCO3- + H+ carbonic acid bicarbonate ion

  19. Transport of Carbon Dioxide from the Tissues to the Lungs • 60-70% as bicarbonate dissolved in the • plasma (slow reaction) • 7-10% dissolved in the plasma as CO2 • 20-30% bound to hemoglobin as HbCO2 • CO2 + hemoglobin  HbCO2

  20. Mechanics of Breathing • 2 muscles involved with breathing: • external intercostal muscles • diaphragm • Breathing controlled by: • phrenicnerve from medulla • pons

  21. Mechanics of Breathing

  22. Lung Ventilation 760 mm Hg 756 mm Hg Negative pressure draws air in Inspiration

  23. Lung Ventilation Positive pressure forces air out 768 mm Hg Expiration

  24. Lung Volumes Tidal Volume- 500 ml Vital Capacity- 4800 ml Residual Volume- 1000-1200ml Total Lung Capacity- 4400-6400ml IRV- 2800 ml ERV- 1000-1200ml Dead Space- 150 ml What factors affect lung volume?

  25. pons medulla oblongata Regulation of Breathing phrenic CO2 and H+ triggers breathing reflex in medulla, not presence of O2 vegas

  26. Restrictive vs Obstructive Air Flow • Restrictive- more diff. to get air in to lungs • Loss of lung tissue • Decrease in lungs ability to expand • Decrease in ability to transfer O2 and CO2 in blood • Diseases: • Fibrosis, sarcoidosis, muscular disease, chest wall injury, pneumonia, lung cancer, pregnancy, obesity •  VC, TLC, RV, FRC

  27. Restrictive vs Obstructive Air Flow • Obstructive- more diff. to get air out of lungs • Airway narrows • Increase in time it takes to empty lungs • Diseases: • Emphysema, chronic bronchitis, asthma  VC,  TLC, RV, FRC

  28. Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Diseases

  29. COPD Chronic bronchitis- (obstructive) inhaled irritants lead to chronic excessive mucous production and inflammation and fibrosis of that mucosa;  the amt of air that can be inhaled; use bronco- dilators and inhalers Emphysema- (obstructive and restrictive) enlargement of alveoli; alveolar tissue is destroyed resulting in fewer and larger alveoli; inefficient air exchange; smoker's disease;  amt of air that can be exhaled Asthma- (obstructive disorder) cold, exercise, pollen and other allergens; from 1979-1989 the number of asthmatic deaths doubles

  30. COPD Tuberculosis (TB)- (restrictive) infectious disease cause by bacterium Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Spread through air borne bacteria from infected person's cough. Total lung capacity declines Symptoms: fever night sweats, wt. loss, racking cough, and spitting up blood Polio- TLC declines (restrictive) Eliminated in U.S. and Western Hemisphere Still exists in Africa Lung cancer- promoted by free radicals and other carcinogens; very aggressive and metastasizes rapidly

  31. Smoker’s lung Normal lung

  32. Mammalian Dive Reflex • Heart rate slows • Blood flow to extremities constricted • Blood and water allowed to pass through organs and circulatory walls to chest cavity.

  33. Hyperventilation • Short term, rapid, deep breathing beyond the need for the activity • Lowers the level of CO2 in blood

  34. Shallow Water Blackout

  35. INQUIRY • Identify the lipoprotein molecule that reduces surface tension within the alveoli so they do not collapse during exhalation. • Even after the most forceful exhalation, a certain volume of air remains in the lungs. What is the volume of air called? • Describe the physical structure of alveoli. • What structures warm and moisten incoming air? • What body cavity are the lungs located? • What tissue lines the lungs? • What stimulates the breathing response? • Calculate total lung capacity given: • RV= 1000, TV = 500, ERV = 1100, IRV = 2500, VC= 4100