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  1. Chapter 10: Social and Personality Development in Middle Childhood

  2. In This Chapter

  3. Theories of Social and Personality DevelopmentPsychoanalytic Theories Freud: challenge is to form emotional bonds with peers and move beyond sole earlier formed bonds Erikson: challenge is to develop a sense of competence and willingness to work toward goal • Industry versus Inferiority Stage

  4. Theories of Social and Personality Development Trait Approach What trait or traits describe you best?

  5. The Big Five Personality Traits

  6. Theories of Social and Personality Development Social-Cognitive Perspectives Bandura and reciprocal determinism Three components • Person component (traits) • Behavior • Environment These three mutually influence one another

  7. Figure 10.1 Bandura’s Determinism Model

  8. Self-ConceptThe Psychological Self Psychological self: Person’s understanding of his or her enduring psychological characteristics • More complex • Comparisons in self-descriptions • Less tied to external features

  9. Self-ConceptSelf-Efficacy Self-efficacy: Individual’s belief in their capacity to cause intended events • Social comparisons • Encouragement from valued sources • Actual experiences

  10. Self-ConceptThe Valued Self Nature of self-esteem

  11. Self-ConceptSelf-Esteem Key components • Discrepancy between what desires and perceived achievement • Perceived support from important people

  12. Self-ConceptOrigins of Self-Esteem Direct experience with success or failure Labels and judgments from others Value attached to some skill or quality affected by peers’ and parents’ attitudes

  13. Figure 10.2 Harter’s Research on Social Support, Domain Values and Self Esteem

  14. Advances in Social CognitionSelf-Concept The Child as Psychologist Focuses on internal traits and motivations of others Better understanding that same person plays different roles in life Less emphasis on external appearance

  15. Figure 10.3 Changes in Children’s Descriptions of Others

  16. Self-ConceptMoral Reasoning: Piaget Moral reasoning: Judgments about rightness and wrongness of specific actions • Moral realism • Moral relativism

  17. The Social World of the School-Aged ChildFamily Relationships ParentalExpectations • Parents recognize children’s increasing abilities to self-regulate • Culture may play a role in the age of expected behaviors

  18. The Social World of the School-Aged ChildFamily Relationships ParentalExpectations • Boys given more autonomy • Girls held more accountable • Parental authoritative style more often produces socially competent children

  19. The Social World of the School-Aged ChildFamily Relationships Only Children and Siblings Only children • As well adjusted as children with siblings Siblings • Positively contribute to children’s social and emotional understanding

  20. The Social World of the School-Aged Child Friendships Peer importance increases in middle childhood “Best Friend” emerges Friendships depend on reciprocal trust by age 10 Friends help with problem solving and conflict management

  21. Figure 10.4 A 10-Year-Old’s Explanation of Friendship

  22. Gender Segregation Cultural influence Age of appearance Playmate preference Playmate style by gender

  23. The Social World of the School-Aged ChildGender Segregation Boundary violations Play group composition by gender Play focus Cooperative play

  24. The Social World of the School-Aged ChildPatterns of Aggression

  25. The Social World of the School-Aged ChildPatterns of Aggression Girls display more relational aggression Both boys and girls increase retaliatory aggression Can you think of examples to illustrate each kind of aggression?

  26. The Social World of the School-Aged ChildSocial Status Social status: Degree to which children are accepted by peers

  27. The Social World of the School-Aged ChildTwo Types of Rejected Children How are these types of rejected children alike? How are do they differ?

  28. The Social World of the School-Aged ChildTwo Types of Rejected Children Neglected or rejected Very different from peers, shy, highly creative The invisible child

  29. Influences Beyond Family and Peers After-School Care Pros and Cons CONS/DISADVANTAGES PROS/ADVANTAGES

  30. Influences Beyond Family and Peers Poverty Childhood poverty rate Rate is higher for younger children Characteristics of parents in poverty

  31. Figure 10.5 Poverty, Age and Time

  32. Influences Beyond Family and Peers Poverty Children in poverty • More often ill • Lower average IQ scores • Perform poorly in school • Exhibit more behavior problems

  33. Influences beyond Family and Peers Inner-City Poverty

  34. Influences beyond Family and Peers Inner-City Poverty Children of inner-city poverty may grow up • Exposed to street gangs and street violence • In over-crowded homes • Subject to more abuse and drug use • Witnessing or becoming victims of more violent crimes • Subject to PTSD

  35. ? ? Questions To Ponder What are three factors that schools can focus on to help a student develop their sense of industry? Since we know poverty is a major factor in poor developmental outcomes for education, what can we do to encourage poor students to be successful?

  36. True or False? There is a causal link between viewing violent television and aggressive behavior in children.

  37. Television Prosocial behavior Enhanced by quality programs that teach children moral and social values • Mr. Rogers’ Neighborhood • Sesame Street

  38. Computers and the Internet • Economic differences • Uses • Gender differences

  39. Video Games Influences on child behavior Violent content and game preferences

  40. Influences Beyond Family and Peers Policy QuestionTest-Based Reform National Assessment of Educational Progress NAEP: “The Nation’s Report Card” Assessment of educational improvement “Teaching to the test” Student efforts

  41. Figure 10.6 NAEP Average Scores Over Time