Reconstruction 1865 to 1877?
Reconstruction Rebuilding the former Confederate states and reuniting the nation Reconstruction Era has two areas of focus the first covers the entire nation in the period 1865–1877 following the Civil War. the second one, covers the transformation of the South from 1863 to 1877, with the reconstruction of state and society in the former Confederacy.
What were consequences and significant problems that the US needs to be address after the Civil War?
Consequences & Future Issues the of Civil War • Destruction of farms, property, buildings… • Relationship between Southerners and Freedmen? • Relationship between the North and the South? • Lack of Maintenance of Productivity on the Farms (No cheap labor) • Limited Maintenance of Law and Order - Disruption of Transportation • War Casualties • Inadequate Quality of Health and Sanitary Conditions
Future Issues after Civil War • What is the plan for how the South will be readmitted back into the Union? Who will have the Constitutional Authority to monitor the reconstruction process? • To what extent will the Dems & Reps work together to unite the nation? • How (or to what extent) will the status of A.A. change? • Political, Social, & Economic
What is the plan for how the South will be readmitted back into the Union? Who will have the Constitutional Authority to monitor the reconstruction process? • Who is in charge of the Reconstruction Process: Executive or Legislative Branch?
Lincoln’s Reconstruction Plan • Proclamation of Amnesty aka 10% Plan (Dec. 8, 1863) • Executive Branch should be in charge of Reconstruction • 10% must swear allegiance to US govt. • Govt pardons all Conf. except for high-ranking Confederates • Abolishment of Slavery (13th Amendment) http://www.classic-literature.co.uk/american-authors/19th-century/abraham-lincoln/abraham-lincoln.gif
Radical Republican Reconstruction Plan • Wade Davis Bill (passed by Congress in July, 1864) • Congress should be in charge of Reconstruction • Majority should swear allegiance to US govt Many Radical Rep. (ex: Charles Sumner & Thaddeus Stevens) supported African Americans and that they should be given full citizenship & right to vote * Plan was pocket vetoed by Lincoln http://www.digitalhistory.uh.edu/daybyday/images/thaddeus_stevens.jpg
Abe Lincoln’s second Inaugural Speech • “With malice toward none, with charity for all, with firmness in the right, as God gives us to see the right, let us strive on to finish the work we are in, to bind up the nation’s as God gives us to see the right, to bind up the nation’s wounds, to care for him who shall have borne the battle and for his widow and his orphan, to do all which may achieve and cherish a just and lasting peace among ourselves and with all nations.” • -March 4, 1865
March 1865 to April 1865 Surrender at Appomattox Courthouse on April 9, 1865: End of Civil War
March 1865 to April 1865 Death of Lincoln: April 15, 1865 (7:22 am)
Inauguration of Andrew Johnson April 15, 1865 (10-11 am)
Johnson’s (Presidential) Reconstruction Plan • Similar to Lincoln’s Plan (10% Plan) • However, major exception was • The Exclusion of high-ranking Confederates and wealthy Southern landowners from taking the oath needed for voting privileges (pardon these individuals on an individual basis) • Southern States must repudiate Confederate debt • Johnson’s Plan was supported by South • According to Johnson, Reconstruction was completed by December 1865 http://www.ralphmag.org/AF/andrew-johnson310x468.gif
Carpetbaggers & Scalawags!!!!! • Derogatory name still used by historians to describe the following… • Scalawags • Traitor (to the Southern cause) • White southerners who joined the Republican Party • Most were small farmers, who are now In favor of Industrialization ASAP • Carpetbagger • Northerners who moved to South after the War, • Perceived as opportunists by the South • Mixed motives: Freedmen Bureau agents, teachers, ministers, union soldiers, businessmen, adventurers… • Most of the Carpetbaggers supported the Republican • Both Scalawags & Carpetbaggers most likely got politically involved, representing the Republican Party • .
Reconstruction Legislation? • What do you propose?
Congressional Reconstruction: Legislation (during Johnson’s Era) • 13TH Amendment (supported by Johnson) • Abolished Slavery • Freedmen’s Bureau (passed over Johnson’s veto) • Educational and medical assistance to Freedmen • Civil Rights Act of 1866 (passed over Johnson’s veto) • First Civil Rights Act in US History • Granted Citizenship and equal protection under the law to African Americans • 14th Amendment (not supported by Johnson) • Constitutional Amendment equivalent to Civil Rights Act of 1866 • Prohibited states from denying any citizens of “life, liberty, or property without due process of law” and “Equal Protection” • States who do not give freedmen the right to vote cannot count them in census • …
Reconstruction Acts of 1867: Military Zones • Reconstruction Acts of 1867 (passed over Johnson’s veto) • South divided into five military districts (exception= Tennessee) • South states must ratify 14th Amendment to be reenter the Union • Essentially became the New Reconstruction Plan • Called for new State Constitutions & inclusion of AA in process http://georgiainfo.galileo.usg.edu/tdgh-mar/reconstructionmap.jpg \
How might Johnson’s continual veto of legislation passed by Congress affect his relationship with Congress?
Radical Republicans vs. President Johnson • Reasons why Republicans disliked Johnson? • Affiliated with the Democratic Party • Pardoned many Confederate Leaders • Continual Veto of Reconstruction of legislation • Swing Around the Circle Speeches • Refusal to enforce Reconstruction legislation and rights of freedmen -Alienated his Rep. Cabinet http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/5/5f/Nast_on_Andrew_Johnson.jpg
Johnson’s Impeachment TrialMarch to May 1868 • Tenure in Office Act (Passed over Johnson’s veto) • President couldn’t remove Cabinet officers without Congressional Consent • Johnson fires Secretary of War Edwin Stanton • House brings 11 impeachment charges against Johnson • Acquitted by one vote (Edmund Ross) http://www.picturehistory.com/images/products/0/0/6/prod_601.jpg http://prod.americaslibrary.gov/assets/jb/recon/jb_recon_impeach_1_e.jpg
What if… • How is the acquittal of A. Johnson historically significant? • Think Check & Balances.
Significant Reconstruction Legislation (during Grant’s Era) • 15th Amendment (supported by Grant) • All male citizens (including African American males) have the right to vote • Enforcement Act of 1870 (supported by Grant) • Federal Govt has power to protect voting rights of African Americans • Civil Rights Act of 1875 (supported by Grant) • Outlawed racial segregation in public places • Assured the right of African Americans to serve on juries
Obstacles Faced by Freedmen & Southern Control over Freedmen -Black Codes (1865 to 1866) -state laws that restricted Freedmen’s daily life -prohibiting blacks from carrying weapons, serving on juries, marrying whites, starting their own businesses, etc… -Voting Restrictions -Poll taxes, Literacy Tests, Intimidation, Grandfather Clause, etc… -Organization of the KKK -Nathan Bedford Forrest was the First Grand Wizard -Organized in Tennessee -Anti-African American, Republican Party, etc. -Sharecropping & Tenant Farming -Freedmen fell victim to Crop-lien System http://www.nathanbedfordforrestudc.org/nbf.jpg
Sharecropping Cycle http://cfbstaff.cfbisd.edu/wallm/Texas%20Main/Frontier%20and%20Industry/Images/texas_1.jpg
Coping Strategies used by Southern African Americans • Union League • Network of political clubs that educated members in their civic duties and campaigned for Rep. candidates • Became involved in national politics • Hiram Revels & Blanche K. Bruce became Mississippi Senators • African American Churches • (African Methodist Episcopal (AME), Methodist Episcopal Zion (AMEZ), Colored (now "Christian") Methodist Episcopal Church, National Baptist Convention • Migration to the West • Exodusters (Benjamin “Pap” Singleton) to Kansas http://www2.liu.edu/cwis/cwp/library/african/west/single_l.jpg
Events that led to end of Reconstruction • Scandals during Grant’s administration • (ex Credit Mobilier & Whiskey Ring) • Rise of Liberal Republicans who favored less govt control and more control of the govt (1872 election) • Amnesty Act of 1872 • Pardoned many southern rebels • Supreme Court Case ruled that 14th amendment only applies to federal govt • US vs Reese & Slaughter-House Cases • Financial Panic of 1873 • Redeemers of the South (Less control from scalawags and carpetbaggers) • Election of 1876… http://www.corbisimages.com/images/67/785281FF-CC84-4F40-9465-88D2BF8BCE38/BE031416.jpg
1876 Presidential Election http://www.trinityhistory.org/AmH/images/1876election.jpg
Compromise of 1877 & End of Reconstruction? • Bargain to secure Hayes victory • Hayes will remove all remaining federal troops from South Carolina and Louisiana (Rec. Acts of 1867) • Federal aid to southern railroads and for internal improvements • Southern Democrats will accept Hayes as president • South promises to protect African American rights • historyplace.com
Frederick Douglas • When you turned us loose, you turned us loose to the sky, to the storm, to the whirlwind, and worst of all…to the wrath of our infuriated masters…. The question now is, do you mean to make good to us the promises in your Constitution? The answer provided by the 1876 election and the 1877 compromise was “No.”
Aftermath of Reconstruction • African Americans continue to deal with prejudice and discrimination (Jim Crow Laws, Segregation, Plessy vs Ferguson etc….) • Republican stronghold on presidency until 1932 election (w/ few exceptions)
To what extent should Reconstruction be perceived as a success or failure?