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Staying Healthy

Staying Healthy

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Staying Healthy

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  1. Staying Healthy • What is healthy? • Whole person concept • Diet • Exercise • Attempting to change • Body image

  2. I. What is healthy? • Do you consider yourself to be healthy? • Health is dependent upon: • Personal lifestyle choices • Genetics • Environmental conditions • Technological development of your country • Gender, ethnicity, cultural issues • Age-specific risks • Potential for accidents

  3. A. Life expectancy • Life  expectancy: 77.6 years (U.S. woman) • http://www.cdc.gov/nchs/fastats/lifexpec.htm

  4. All women Heart Disease 365,953 Cancer 267,009 Stroke 102,892 Chronic lower respiratory diseases 62,005 Diabetes 37,699 Influenza and pneumonia 36,655 Alzheimer's disease 35,120 Accidents 34,083 Kidney disease 19,440 Septicemia 17,687  African American women Heart Disease 40,783 Cancer 29,128 Stroke 11,195 Diabetes 7,250 Kidney disease 3,837 Accidents 3,746 Chronic lower respiratory diseases 3,369 Septicemia 3,341 Influenza and pneumonia 3,075 HIV 2,448 B. Leading Causes of Death… From Health, United States 2002, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Health Statistics

  5. Asian American/Pacific Islander and Native Hawaiian women Cancer 4,356 Heart Disease 3,926 Stroke 1,733 Accidents 621 Diabetes 556 Influenza and pneumonia 528 Chronic lower respiratory diseases 411 Kidney disease 273 Hypertension 179 Septicemia 170  Hispanic American/Latina womenCauses Deaths Heart Disease 12,253 Cancer 10,022 Stroke 3,322 Diabetes 2,821 Accidents 2,134 Influenza and pneumonia 1,322 Chronic lower respiratory diseases 1,238 Perinatal conditions 951 Chronic liver disease and cirrhosis 875 Kidney disease 841 Leading causes of death cont. Health Assessment

  6. II. Whole person concept • When examining your lifestyle, it is important to look at the “whole” picture of your health • Mind, Body & Spirit (psyche, soma, spirit) • Emotional, attitudinal & mental state • Physical status • Philosophy about living for yourself and living with others • Factors that influence your status as a whole person: • Endogenous – event that occur within you • Exogenous – external events

  7. Six dimensions of wellness • Physical – willingness to take time each week to pursue activities that increase physical flexibility and endurance • Emotional – awareness and acceptance of a wide range of feelings for oneself and others • Social – willingness to actively participate in and contribute to efforts that promote the common welfare of one’s community • Occupational – personal satisfaction and enrichment one experiences through work • Intellectual – self-directed behavior that includes continuous acquisition, development, creative application and articulation of critical thinking • Spiritual – willingness to seek meaning and purpose in human existence, to question everything and to appreciate the intangibles that cannot be explained or understood readily

  8. III. Diet • YOU ARE WHAT YOU EAT… • The body as a “machine”, metabolizing food for energy & cellular components • Energy – the Calorie (C) amount of heat required to raise the temperature of a kilogram of water from 14.5 ºC to 15.5 ºC • 1 gm of carbohydrate = 4 calories • 1 gm of protein = 4 calories • 1 gm of fat = 9 calories

  9. B. New food pyramid • http://www.mypyramid.gov/ • Eat whole foods (not processed) • Eat local, seasonal organic foods if possible • A “healthy diet” is one that: • Emphasizes fruits, vegetables, whole grains, and fat-free or low-fat milk and milk products; • Includes lean meats, poultry, fish, beans, eggs, and nuts; and • Is low in saturated fats, trans fats, cholesterol, salt (sodium), and added sugars.

  10. C. Vitamins & Minerals • 13 essential vitamins (table 17-1) • Water soluble • Fat soluble • 17 essential minerals (table 17-2)

  11. D. How to read the food label • http://www.cfsan.fda.gov/~dms/foodlab.html

  12. IV. Exercise – our bodies in motion • Even light to moderate activity several times per week can help reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease • Men more likely to engage in leisure-time, moderate, or regular (5x week) physical activity, WHY? • “we are what we repeatedly do” - Aristotle • 3 major kinds of physical activity: • Cardio training • Strength training • Flexibility training • Adults should strive to meet either of the following physical activity  recommendations.     •     Adults should engage in moderate-intensity physical activities for at  least 30 minutes on 5 or more days of the week.OR •     Adults should engage in vigorous-intensity physical activity 3 or more  days per week for 20 or more minutes per occasion • http://www.cdc.gov/nccdphp/dnpa/physical/index.htm

  13. V. Attempting to change • Learning and Behavior • Positive reinforcer – rewarding • if your behavior is followed by something perceived by you as rewarding then you will be more likely to repeat that behavior • Negative reinforcer – removal of something uncomfortable • if your behavior is followed by the removal of something uncomfortable to you, then the likelihood that you will repeat that behavior increases • Punishment – presentation of something uncomfortable • When your behavior is followed by punishment, the likelihood of that behavior being repeated by you decreases

  14. Resistance to change… • There may be interfering beliefs or values that hold you back • Motives may contribute to your resistance

  15. B. Planning your lifestyle change • Take a Personal inventory • Have a Positive attitude • Create a Plan of action • Assess your behavior • Set specific & realistic goals • Formulate intervention strategies • Evaluate your progress

  16. One theory of behavior change • Before you attempt any change, it is important to do a "motivation check". • Make 2 lists – list #1 benefits of the current behavior; list #2 the benefits that you anticipate from the proposed change. • Identify cues that trigger unwanted behaviors & also identify barriers to your change - situations, people, or emotions that will make your change difficult. • Unfreezing to refreezing theory • Unfreezing – becoming ready to consider change through an attitude shift • Problem diagnosis – understanding why current behavior exists & expected positive outcome from behavior change • Goal setting – (short & long term) • Refreezing – when a new behavior becomes integrated, routine, ongoing and stabilized

  17. V. Body Image • How do you feel about yourself? How do you see yourself?