Noncommunicable Disease Noncommunicable disease a disease that is not transmitted by another person, a vector, or the environment
Cardiovascular Disease • Cardiovascular disease (CVD) • A disease that affects the heart or blood vessels • Responsible for almost 40% of US deaths • Cardio refers to heart • Vascular refers to the blood vessels
Types of CVD • Hypertension (high blood pressure) • Often no signs or symptoms • Sometimes called a “silent killer” • Can occur at any age – most common over the age of 35 • Treat hypertension • Manage weight • Exercise • Eat a balanced diet
Types of CVD 1) Atherosclerosis • A disease characterized by the accumulation of plaque on artery walls • Conditions that can lead to atherosclerosis: • Smoking • High blood pressure • High cholesterol • Lack of physical activity • Unhealthy diet
Types of CVD 2) Diseases of the heart • When the blood supply to the heart is restricted, the heart does not get the oxygen that is needed Angina Pectoris • Chest pain that results when the heart does not get enough oxygen • Usually lasts from a few seconds to a few minutes • Usually caused by atherosclerosis
Types of CVD • Diseases of the heart Arrhythmias • Irregular heartbeats Heart Attack • When reduced or blocked blood supply damages the heart muscle • Pressure, fullness, squeezing, or aching in chest area • Pain spreading to the arms, neck, jaw, stomach, or back • Chest discomfort, shortness of breath, lightheaded feeling, sweating, nausea, or vomiting
Types of CVD • Diseases of the heart Congestive Heart Failure • Heart gradually weakens & can no longer maintain its regular pumping rate & force • Cannot be cured
Types of CVD • Stroke • An acute injury in which blood flow to the brain is interrupted • Damage depends on the size of the stroke & what part of the brain is deprived of oxygen • Signs & Symptoms: • Severe headache • Numbness on one side of the body • Confusion • Trouble walking • Dizziness • Trouble seeing out of one or both eyes
What do Teens need to know about CVD • CVD can begin during the teen years • 1 in 6 already have evidence of CVD • Teens who smoke or have diabetes were more likely to develop CVD
Risk Factors • Controllable Risk Factors: • Tobacco/Marijuana use • High Blood Pressure • High Cholesterol • Physical inactivity • Excess weight (overweight/obese) • Stress • Alcohol and drug Use
Risk Factors • Uncontrollable Risk Factors: • Heredity • Gender • Age
What is Cancer? • Uncontrollable growth of abnormal cells • Has a variety of forms and affects different areas of the body
What is Cancer? • Every day, your body produces countless numbers of healthy, normal cells • Also produces some abnormal ones
Immune System & Cancer • Immune system NORMALLY kills these abnormal cells BEFORE they become cancerous • When immune system is weak, the abnormal cells multiply faster then the immune system can destroy them
How Cancer Harms the Body • Tumor • Abnormal mass of tissue that has no natural role in the body • 2 kinds of tumors: • Benign • Noncancerous – grows slowly • Surrounded by membranes that prevent it from spreading
How Cancer Harms the Body • Malignant • Cancerous – does not stay in one place • Metastasis • Spread of cancer from the point where it originated to others parts of the body • Cancer cells divide and form new tumors • Kill normal cells as they compete with them for nutrients in the body • Can put pressure on your organs & tissues • Block arteries, veins, & other passages
Types of Cancer • Can develop in almost any part of the body • Classified according to the tissues they affect • Lymphomas • Cancers of the immune system • Leukemias • Cancers of the blood-forming organs • Carcinomas • Cancers of the glands & body linings (skin, lungs) • Sarcomas • Cancers of connective tissues (bones, muscles)
Risk Factors for Cancer • Carcinogens • Cancer causing substance • Tobacco & UV light are two of the most common carcinogens that cause cancer
Risk Factors for Cancer • Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STDs/STIs) • Some STDs/STIs have the ability to cause cancer • Forms of HPV, HIV, Hepatitis B
Risk Factors for Cancer • Dietary Factors • About 30% of all cancer deaths are caused by dietary risk factors • Fats, lack of dietary fiber
Reducing Your Risk • Protect your skin from UV light • Avoid tobacco & alcohol • Practice abstinence • Be physically active • Maintain a healthy weight • Eat healthy • Recognize the warning signs of cancer
Detecting and Treating Cancer • Early detection, the most critical factor in successful cancer treatment • Survival rate depends on two main factors: • Early detection • Type of cancer
Detecting and Treating Cancer • 1) Self- Examination • 2) Medical Examination • Medical screening • Biopsy • The removal of a small piece of tissue
Detecting and Treating Cancer • Depends on several factors • Type of cancer, cancer has spread, overall health of person • Might include one or a combination of treatment: • 1) Surgery • 2) Radiation Therapy • 3) Chemotherapy • 4) Immunotherapy • 5) Hormone Therapy
Diabetes Type 2 diabetes is on the rise. Young people are especially at risk today.
Diabetes In a person with diabetes, the pancreas produces too little or no insulin, a hormone that helps glucose from food enter body cells and provide them with energy. Diabetes A chronic disease that affects the way body cells convert sugar into energy
Diabetes Symptoms of Diabetes Frequent urination Tingling in hands or feet Excessive thirst Frequent fatigue Unexplained weight loss Sores that are slow to heal Sudden changes in vision More infections than usual
Diabetes Some diabetics do produce enough insulin, but their cells don’t respondnormally to it. As a result, glucose builds up in the blood instead of being delivered to cells.
Diabetes The only way to diagnose diabetes is through a blood test. Diabetes can be successfully managed with medication, a healthful eating plan, and regular moderate exercise.
Diabetes Blindness KidneyFailure Stroke Long-Term Effects of Untreated Diabetes LimbAmputations HeartDisease
Type 1 Diabetes Type 1 diabetes is known as an autoimmune disease. Autoimmune disease A condition in which the immune system mistakenly attacks itself, targeting the cells, tissues, and organs of a person’s own body
Type 1 Diabetes Type 1 diabetes accounts for 5 to 10 percent of all diabetes cases. The body fails to produce insulin, glucose builds up in the blood, and cells don’t get the energy they need.
Type 1 Diabetes Over time, the high blood sugar level can cause damage to the eyes, kidneys, nerves, and heart. People with type 1 diabetes must take daily doses of insulin.
Type 2 Diabetes Type 2 diabetes accounts for 90 to 95 percent of all cases of diabetes. In this form of diabetes, the body is unable to make enough insulin or to use insulin properly.
Type 2 Diabetes Type 2 diabetes usually appears after age 40, but growing numbers of younger people are developing this disease. The increase in childhood obesity is directly linked to the increase in type 2 diabetes among children.
Type 2 Diabetes Some scientists fear that type 2 diabetes will become an epidemic for two reasons: • There are more older people in the population. • There are more obese and inactive young people.
Type 2 Diabetes To help prevent type 2 diabetes, include these healthful behaviors in your life: • Choose low-fat, low-calorie foods. • Participate in regular physical activity.
Type 2 Diabetes Monitor blood sugar levels. People with diabetes can live full, normal lives if they manage their condition. Make healthful eating decisions. Engage in regular physical activity. Take prescribed medications.
Allergies Allergies are caused by a variety of substances. These substances are present in your environment and make their way into your body.
Allergies Allergies are a very common noncommunicable illness caused by allergens. Allergy A specific reaction of the immune system to a foreign and frequently harmless substance
Allergies Common Allergens Pollen Certain foods Dust Mold spores Chemicals Insect venom Dander from animals Certain medicines
Allergies There are many kinds of allergic reactions. Some allergies produce hives—itchy raised bumps on the skin.
Allergies More serious allergic reactions that can be life threatening include: Severe hives; itching or swelling of an area stung by an insect Sharp drop in blood pressure, which can cause dizziness Swelling of the tongue, mouth, or eyes Difficulty breathing or swallowing
Diagnosing Allergies Sometimes you can diagnose an allergy yourself. In many cases, though, blood tests and skin tests are needed to identify the source of an allergic reaction.
Diagnosing Allergies During a skin test, small amounts of possible allergens are applied to a scratched area of the skin.
Treating Allergies The simplest way to treat an allergy is to avoid the allergen that causes it. When avoidance is not possible, people with allergies can take medicines that help control allergy symptoms called antihistamines.
Treating Allergies If you suffer from severe allergies, your doctor may prescribe antihistamines or a single, injectable dose of medicine that you carry with you at all times. If someone you know experiences a severe allergic reaction, call 911 immediately.
Asthma Asthma has no cure, but it can be managed. Asthma can be life threatening, so those who have it must take the condition seriously and learn to manage it.
Asthma More than 15 million people in the United States have asthma. Asthma An inflammatory condition in which the small airways in the lungs become narrowed, causing difficulty in breathing