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Indoor Air Quality

Indoor Air Quality

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Indoor Air Quality

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  1. Indoor Air Quality

  2. “Quality” Indoor Air • Good Indoor Air Quality (IAQ) depends upon... • Proper circulation • Age of the building • Regular maintenance • Filtration • Humidity levels

  3. Indoor air in schools • One out of every thirteen school-aged children suffer from asthma • Every year, more than 10 million absentee days are accumulated on account of airborne related illnesses • EPA study in 2000 determined 50% of nation’s schools had improperly maintained equipment

  4. Student test performance • Effect of outdoor air supply rate and filtration • Speed of 4 of 7 tests performed improved significantly when outdoor air supply rate increased • No sig. effect on test scores • Effect of moderately raised temperatures • When temps reduced from 25 to 20 degrees Celsius, performance (speed) improved in 2 numerical and 2 language based tests • Effect of particle filtration • So significant effects on performance Wargocki and Lyon, 2006. Wargockiet al., 2007.

  5. Indoor Air Pollutants • Radon • Carbon Monoxide • Ozone • Tobacco Smoke • Volatile Organic Compounds (VOC’s) • Toxic Materials – Asbestos, Lead • Biological Aerosols (Bioaerosols)

  6. Bioaerosols • Defined as... • Any airborne molecule that is biological in origin • can be in the form of gases, vapor, or large particulates. • can also be microorganisms themselves - Fungi, bacteria, viruses, protozoans

  7. Bioaerosols Source: http://www.state.nj.us/health/eoh/peoshweb/bioaero.htm

  8. Aerial Microbiological Contamination • Study conducted in Italy, Daccarroet al. 2003, looking at airborne microbial communities in gyms • Found a higher abundance of “Staph” in the gym compared with outdoors • Also, 38 fungi taxa in gyms and 30 outdoors

  9. Classroom activities • Growing Airborne Microbes • Comparing different areas of the scholastic environment • Petri dishes • Agar medium • Particulate traps • Wire hangers, nylon, and petroleum jelly

  10. Legionella • Genus of bacteria • Legionnaires disease • Flu-like symptoms • Domestic hot-water systems and cooling towers

  11. Staphlococcus • Most species harmless • Food poisoning • More recently, human infections

  12. Actinomycetes • Very common: 1-20 million/ g of soil • Look much like fungi but are bacteria • Tuberculosis

  13. Histoplasma • Histoplasmosis • Primarily effects lungs • Common in immunodeficent individuals

  14. Alternaria • Mostly plant pathogens • Allergen to humans

  15. Pencillium • Commonly known as moulds • Main cause of food spoilage • Produce mycotoxins • Many practical applications

  16. Aspergillus • Another common mould • Some species produce aflatoxins • Also, many practical applications

  17. Stachybotrys • Black mold • Moist areas • Wide range of symptoms • Extended exposure: very severe symptoms

  18. Dermatophagoides (dust mites) • One of the main causes of asthma • Fecal matter higher allergenic • Unfortunately, no way to avoid...FOUND EVERYWHERE