TECHNOLOGY AND LITERACY Jacqueline Geary 702.22 FALL 2009
TABLE OF CONTENT INTRODUCTION: • Statement of the problem • Review of related literacy • Statement of the Hypothesis METHODS: • Participants • Instruments REFERENCES: APPENDIX: A, B, C, D
STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM In 2007, thirty four percent of New York Public School fourth grade students were reading below basic reading levels(National Reading Report, 2007). This shows that schools need to experiment with different literacy programs that will improve reading skills. Using technology-based literacy (E-Books) can increase student’s reading skills and comprehension because technology is interactive, includes visual and audio effects, which can help students stay focused while reading.
REVIEW OF RELATED LITERACTURE • Introduction: • Literacy today is different from what literacy was traditionally considered, which was the ability to read and write. Today, literacy still refers to the ability to read and write but it also includes being able to understand and analyze images and digital information. (Brown, 2002) • the Internet is one of the most common sources for reading and researching information. (Goodnough, 1995)
Pro’s of Technology and Literacy: • Technology especially helps students with disabilities and active and visual learners. • Technology improvements in student learning include: • Focus • Increase Confidence • Enhance comprehension • Gain motivation • Increase in critical thinking • (Barone & Wright, 2008; Brown, 2002; Goodnough, 1995; Kaya, O’Connor-Petruso, & Girelli-Carasi, 2010; MacGregor, 2004; Park &Helsel, 2008; Rhodes & Milby, 2007; Rich, 2008)
Pro’s of technology and literacy: • Leapfrog books are not intimidating and are interactive. Also gives teachers more time to work with slow readers. • Internet usage in classrooms for discussion: • Blogs • Discussion boards • Wikis • (Barone & Wright, 2008; Brown, 2002; Goodnough, 1995; Kaya, O’Connor-Petruso, & Girelli-Carasi, 2010; MacGregor, 2004; Park &Helsel, 2008; Rhodes & Milby, 2007; Rich, 2008)
Pro’s of technology and literacy: Benefits of Technology for teachers: • Technology is important for teachers because it gives them the ability to obtain rapid results after testing, • Also the ability to store information for long and short term assessment information • (Barone & Wright, 2008; Brown, 2002; Goodnough, 1995; Kaya, O’Connor-Petruso, & Girelli-Carasi, 2010; MacGregor, 2004; Park &Helsel, 2008; Rhodes & Milby, 2007; Rich, 2008)
Technology and Literacy Disadvantages • Pleasure reading has been becoming less common. • Students are now reading Internet blogs and wikis, which are mostly short, unfiltered, and unedited information. • Computers in school result in secluded and very little human interaction with teachers and peers. • Some spend up to six hours a day online. Addicted to the Internet at a young age. • (Goodnough, 1995; Kop & Hill, 2008; McGrail, 2007, Schnotz & Rasch, 2006; • Smith & Young, 2008; Rich, 2008)
Technology and Literacy Disadvantages • Students grow dependent on computers to count, read, and spell. • Teaching prior to the digital boom are discouraged by technology. • These teachers feel uncomfortable and never had adequate training in computer based programs. • (Goodnough, 1995; Kop & Hill, 2008; McGrail, 2007, Schnotz & Rasch, 2006; Smith & Young, 2008; Rich, 2008)
Book Based Text Printed on paper Cannot be easily modified Read in sequential order Rely on their imagination Rely on prior knowledge Digital Text Digital Easily modified Read rapidly Not sequential Able to respond back Book Based Text vs. Digital Text (Park & Helsel, 2008; Reinking, 1997; Rich, 2008)
STATEMENT OF THE HYPOTHESIS • H.R.1: In P.S. X, Twenty 4th grade students will obtain higher reading skills and comprehension in literacy while using Electronic Books (E-Books) in four weeks.
Participants • 20 fourth grade students in P.S. X • 40 weeks Instruments: • Letter to the Principle • Letter to the Parents/Guardians • Student surveys (pre & post) • Electronic books • Running Records
References • Barone, D. & Wright, T. (2008, December). Literacy instruction with digital and media technologies. The Reading Teacher, 62(4), 292-303. Retrieved December 17, 2009, from Academic Search Elite. (35534022) • Brown, J. S. (2002, February). Growing up digital. USDLA.org, 6 (2), Retrieved October 22, 2009, from http://www.usdla.org/html/journal/FEB02_Issue/article01.html • Chen, J & Price, V. (2006, August). Narrowing the digital divide head start teachers develop proficiency in computer technology.Education and Urban Society, 38, 398-405. Retrieved September 24, 2009, from SAGE database (SAGE Document Reproduction Service No. 1177/0013124506287910) • C.I.O. (2003, September). Linda Abarbanell & Howard Gardner on Technology's Impact on Education. Media Inc. Retrieved December 3, 2009, from C.I.O. website: http://www.cio.com/article/29796/Linda_Abarbanell_Howard_Gardner_on_Tech nology_s_Impact_on_Education?page=1 • Congresswomen Nancy Pelosi. (2009). American recovery and reinvestment act. Retrieved December 12, 2009, from Nancy Pelosi website: http://220.127.116.11/search?q=cache:boUjcW46bV0J:www.speaker.gov/newsroom/legislation%3Fid% 3D0273+pelosi+funding+for+education+technology&cd=1&hl=en&ct=clnk&gl= us&client=safari • Goodnough, A. (1995) Literacy; computers are great, but what about books. Retrieved November 3, 2009, from New York Times website: http://www.nytimes.com/1995/09/03/nyregion/literacy-computers-are-great-but-what-about-books.html
Grant, M., Ross, S., Wang, W., & Potter, A. (2005). Computers on wheels: an alternative to ‘each one has one. British Journal of Education Technology, 36(6), 1017-1034 Retrieved October 29, 2009, from ERIC database. (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. EJ722918) • Kaya, M., O’Connor-Petruso, S. A., & Girelli-Carasi, F. (2010) Literacy- A critical constituent for successful globalization. In S.A. O’Connor-Petruso & F. Girelli-Carasi (Eds.), Globalization: Technology, Literacy & Curriculum (Ch.3). New York: Pearson Custom Publishing. • Kop, R & Hill, A. (2008, October). Connectivism: learning theory of the future or vestige of the past.International Review of Research in Open and Distance Learning, 9(3), 1-13. Retrieved October 12, 2009, from ERIC database. (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. EJ815759) • Larson, L. (2003, October). Electronic reading workshop: beyond books with new literacies and instructional technologies.Journal of Adolescence & Adult Literacy 52(2), 121-130. Retrieved September 17, 2009, from Wilson Web (Wilson Web Document Reproduction Service No. M5QH- MZV3-1) • Learning Styles. (2008). About learning styles. Retrieved December 13, 2009 from Learning Styles website: http://www.learningstyles.net/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=20&Itemid=70 • McGrail, E. (2007). Laptop technology and pedagogy in the english language arts classroom. Journal of Technology & Teacher Education, 15(1), 59-85. Retrieved September 17, 2009, from ERIC database (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. EJ745200) • MacGregor, D. (2004, November). Literacy Software Saves Struggling Readers. T H E Journal, 32(4), 52. Retrieved December 10, 2009, from Academic Search Elite. (15340007) • Mollin, G & Williams, G. (2005, September). Hoover elementary turns to leapfrog schoolhouse. T.H.E. Journal, 33(2) 48. Retrieved September 17, 2009, from Wilson Web (Wilson Web Document Reproduction Service No. EN3B-MCBQ-4) • National Assessment of Educational Progress. (2007). National reading report. Retrieved September 15, 2009, from The Nation’s Reading Report Card website: http://nces.ed.gov/nationsreportcard/pdf/stt2007/2007497NY4.pdf • Norris, C., & Soloway, E. (2008, July). Getting mobile handheld computers bring k12 classrooms into the 21st century. Retrieved October 24, 2009, from District Administration, The Magazine of School District Management Web site: http://www.districtadministration.com/viewarticle.aspx?articleid=1638 • Park, H & Helsel C. (2008, Spring). Differences between reading electronic and book-based text: suggestions and implications for literacy teachers and literacy teacher educators.Journal of Reading Education, 33(3), 28-31. Retrieved September 24, 2009, from Wilson Web database. (Wilson Web Document Reproduction Service No. M5QH-MZV3-2) • Reinking, D. (1997, January). Electronic literacy. Retrieved September 17, 2009, from University of Georgia website: http://curry.edschool.virginia.edu/go/clic/nrrc/reinking.html • Rhodes, J & Milby, T. (2007, November). Teacher-created electronic books: integrating technology to support readers with disabilities.Reading Teacher, 61(3), 255-259. Retrieved September 17, 2009, from ERIC database. (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. EJ778618). • Rich, M. (2008) Literacy debate: online, r u really reading? Retrieved November 3, 2009, from New York Times website. http://www.nytimes.com/2008/07/27/books/27reading.html?scp=6&sq=technology%20and%20literacy&st=cse.
Russell, M., Bebell, D., Cowan, J., & Corbelli, M. (2002). An alphasmart for each student: does teaching and learning change with full accessto word processors? Boston College, 1-30. Retrieved October 29, 2009, from ERIC database. (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. EJ665871) • Smith, R. & Young, N. (2008, October). Giving pleasure its due: collection promotion and readers’ advisory in academic libraries. The Journal of Academic Librarianship, 34(6), 520-526. Retrieved September 17, 2009, from ERIC database (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. EJ819506) • Schnotz, W. & Thorsten, R. (2005). Enabling, Facilitating, and Inhibiting Effects of Animations in Multimedia Learning: Why Reduction of Cognitive Load Can Have Negative Results on Learning. Educational Technology Research and Development, 53(3) 47-58. Retrieved December 17, 2009, from ERIC database. (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. EJ732685) • Weiss, R.P. (2000, September). Howard gardener talks about technology. Treaining & Development. Retrieved December 3, 2009, from BNET website: http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m4467/is_9_54/ai_65579213/ • Wood, C., Littleton, K., & Chera, P. (2005). Beginning readers’ use of talking books: styles of working. Literacy 39(3), 135-141. Retrieved October 29, 2009, from ERIC database. (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. EJ723099)
Directions: Use the chart to answer the questions: • 1. I have a computer at home. ________ • 2. I play games on the computer/Internet. ________ • 3. I use a computer regularly in school. ________ • 4. My teacher uses technology frequently in class. ________ • 5. I am familiar with electronic books. ________ • 6. I have an email address. ________ • 7. I enjoy using the computer. ________ • 8. I play video games. ________ • Directions: Circle the answer that best applies to you. • 9. How many hours a week do you spend on the computer/Internet? • A)0 to 3 hours a week C) 6 to 9 hours a week • B)3 to 6 hours a week D) more than 9 hours a week • 10. How many hours a week do you send playing video games? • A)0 to 3 hours a week C) 6 to 9 hours a week • B) 3 to 6 hours a week D) more than 9 hours a week • Appendix C
Apendix D • StronglyAgree: 1 • Agree:2 • Disagree 3 • Strongly Disagree: 4 • 4Directions: Use the chart to answer the questions: • ANSWERS • 1. I enjoyed using the electronic books duringIndependent Reading time. • 2. I enjoyed the animation and sound effects while reading electronic books. • 3. I felt more confident and understood the story better while reading electronic books. • 4. I would like to continue using electronic books when reading independently. • 5. I would rather read electronic books then paper back books. • 6. I feel more confident using technology after working with electronic literacy. • 7.After using electronic books for the past four weeks the time I spend on the computer outside of school has increased. • 8. After using electronic books for the past four weeks the time I spend on the computer games • and video games has increased.