Early Zionist Movement • 1870s Russian Czar begins pogroms against Jewish population. • 1870s-1900 First European Jews begin settling in Palestine.
British Mandate • From 1916 to 1947, Palestine controlled by British. • British try to limit Jewish immigration and displacement of Arabs, but also pronounce support for a future Jewish state.
Foundation of the State of Israel • following WWII, large-scale Jewish immigration • 1948 British mandate to end, United Nations to take over. • Instead, Jewish state of Israel proclaimed, prepares for war with Arab states. • Israel is victorious, 750,000 Palestinian refugees forced to leave.
Right to Return • December 1948 the U.N. General Assembly passes resolution: "that refugees wishing to return to their homes and live at peace with their neighbor should be permitted to do so” • This resolution has been annually re-affirmed by the U.N. ever since, but is ignored by Israel.
1967 Arab Israeli War • Egypt closes Suez Canal to Israeli ships. • Israel attacks Egypt and others in preemptive strike. Israel absorbs Sinai and Golan Heights, occupies Golan and West Bank. • Roughly 300,000 more refugees flee.
Increasing US role • Total aid since 1949--$84 billion--Israel #1 foreign aid recipient
Palestinian and Arab retaliations • 1987 first Intifada • 1980s first use of suicide bombers • 2000 second Intifada
Palestinians Today • There are roughly 8 million Palestinians • About 5 million are still refugees • Over 40% unemployment in W Bank & Gaza • Over 60% below poverty level • 2000-02 1600 Palestinians killed (600 Israelis)