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Turkey and The Ottoman Empire

Turkey and The Ottoman Empire

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Turkey and The Ottoman Empire

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  1. Turkey and The Ottoman Empire by Susan Daly

  2. The area known as the Ottoman Empire lasted from the early 1200’s until its fall in 1923 during a rebellion led by the Young Turks. This group was led by Mustafa Kemal Ataturk and was made up of army officers who wanted a more democratic government. Ataturk established modern Turkey as a republic.

  3. The history of Turkey goes from Neolithic times to the present day. When visiting any area in Turkey you are visiting history, seeing Neolithic remains, Greek, Roman, Byzantine, Seljuk Turk, Ottoman Turk sites as well as important places for Jews, Christians and Muslims.

  4. Modern Turkey has also been known as Anatolia,Phrygia,Troy,part of the Assyrian empire, Galatia, Asia Minor, and Cappadocia. In Christian times it became the Diocese of Pontus and of Asia. It was part of the Byzantine and Seljuk Empires and finally the Ottoman lands

  5. Neolithic Turkey and Catal Huyuk

  6. For approximately 1600 years , starting in 8,000 BCE, a large Neolithic settlement existed in central Turkey. It is one of the largest Neolithic sites in the Middle East and had a population of 2,000-8,000 people during its occupation. Rebecca Daly, a 1994 graduate of Arcadia is doing her PhD research as an archaeologist here.

  7. Part of the dig site covered by a tent.

  8. This huyuk or moundis very tall and the dig goes down many stories.

  9. Burials were commonly done inside the homes in their floors.

  10. Catal residents lived in mud brick homes built close together. They entered their homes from holes in the roof.

  11. An artists drawing of Catal Huyuk

  12. Although Catal Huyuk was abandoned about 6,500 BCE, the area became very important again with the rise of Mesopotamia. Southeastern Turkey was the bread basket for the cities of Sumer and Ur. It had fertile soil and abundant water from the Euphrates river.

  13. Northern Mesopotamia and the Euphrates river is today the city of Birecik

  14. This food was shipped using the Euphrates river down south to Sumer. The modern city of Birecik is where the Euphrates river becomes navigable and was one of the busiest ports on the Euphrates. The river widens here and flows very fast in deep water.

  15. All across Turkey, there are many sites from the Bible. In the city of Sanliurfa, in a cave, the prophet Abraham was born. This site is sacred to Jews, Christians and Muslims since Abraham is a prophet for all three faiths. The cave is a place of pilgrimage and is part of a mosque today.

  16. Where the prophet Abraham was born

  17. When Abraham left for the promised land, he left from the city of Harran

  18. People in Harran have lived in these mud brick beehive homes for over 6,000 years. It is only within the last 25 years that people here moved in ordinary homes. This is the type of home that Abraham would have lived in while he was in Harran.

  19. A typical living room

  20. Mud brick construction

  21. The main source of fuel is dried animal dung

  22. PergamumThis spectacular city high on a cliff was built by a general of Alexander the Great. It was later added to by the Romans.

  23. Modern Bergama below with the ruins of Pergamum.

  24. A theater that seated 20,000 people.

  25. A temple in ruins

  26. When the Egyptians refused to export papyrus to them, the people of Pergamum invented a new type of writing surface made from beaten animal skins. This became known as vellum. They had a huge library until it was burned by the Byzantines because the authors were pagans.

  27. Egg and Dart detail on a column

  28. One Roman city which is well known by most Christians is Ephesus. This is the city that St. Paul was writing to in his Letter to the Ephesians. It was a prosperous Roman trading city.

  29. The main street in Ephesus

  30. The library at Ephesus

  31. The library at Ephesus is one of the most beautiful buildings in the ancient world. It was also one of the largest collections of scrolls. This library contained over 125,000 scrolls making it a huge collection for its time. This city really showed off its wealth!

  32. A very large public bathroom

  33. A Roman arch

  34. An early Christian symbol

  35. This sculpture is on the Turkish money today.

  36. A Roman backgammon board

  37. Turkey has had waves of occupations throughout history. After the fall of the western Roman empire, the Byzantine empire ruled here until 1453. There are many Byzantine churches across Turkey which show their style of religious art.

  38. Goreme Rock Churches.

  39. In Cappodocia, in central Turkey, 3 volcanoes left a soft layer of tufa covered by a harder layer of basalt. The tufa layer was easier to carve into and many Christian hermits came here to live and carved rock churches.

  40. Christ and some Apostles

  41. Christ and the rest of the Apostles

  42. A cross from the Iconoclastic period.

  43. A typical dining room from this monastery.

  44. St George slaying the dragon

  45. Byzantine Emperor Constantine

  46. Emperor Constantine is very important in Byzantine history because he accepted Christianity as the state religion. His mother returned from a pilgrimage to Jerusalem with pieces of “the true cross”. Her interest in Christianity influenced Constantine. In 312, he issued the Edict of Milan granting equal rights to all religions.

  47. The Empress Helena- mother of Constantine

  48. Under the great Byzantine Emperor Justinian, the great Church of St. Sophia was built in Constantinople. It was an architectural marvel with its huge dome built between 532-537.The name ,Haia Sophia ,means holy wisdom. After 1453, it was converted into a mosque by Mehmet II.

  49. Haia Sophia

  50. Entrance