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Using AAC with Dual Language Learners

Using AAC with Dual Language Learners

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Using AAC with Dual Language Learners

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  1. Using AAC withDual Language Learners • Patricia D. Quattlebaum, M.S.P.,CCC-SLP • SC Assistive Technology Expo • March 18, 2010

  2. Objectives • Terminology, demographics and cultural sensitivity • Normal patterns of development • Atypical patterns of development • Implications for AAC users • Resources

  3. Terminology • Bilingualism • Simultaneous bilingualism • Sequential bilingualism

  4. Dual Language Learners • Term used to describe both simultaneous bilingualism and sequential bilingualism/second language learners

  5. Other Terminology • L1 (first language) • L2 (second language) • LEP (Limited English Proficiency) • ELL (English Language Learners) • ESOL (English for Speakers of Other Languages)

  6. Terminology Related to Support for L1 and L2 • Additive Bilingualism: Achieving high levels of proficiency in both languages is encouraged • Subtractive Bilingualism: Child’s first language is replaced by the second language

  7. Terminology Related to Cultural Acceptance • Majority ethnolinguistic community: the language has high status and is widely used. • Minority ethnolinguistic community: the language is less widely spoken, is valued less and may not be supported by institutions such as schools.

  8. Codeswitching • Alternating between two languages in a single interaction

  9. Demographics • 2000 Census: 4 million residents in SC • 2.4 % Hispanic and Latino (96,000) • .9% Asian (36,000) • In some states, minorities already make up half the population (ex: CA)

  10. 2000 • 2000 US Census indicated that 20% of the school age population spoke a language other than English in the home and 5% of children spoke English with difficulty (US Dept of Education)

  11. 2020 • 45% of American children 0-19 years of age will belong to a racial or ethnic minority (American Acad. Pediatrics, 2004)

  12. 2050 • Hispanic population will constitute almost 25% of the US population and Asian population will double • These and other minorities will comprise half of the population • Must also consider other special populations with unique life/cultural experiences: homeless children and those in foster care (AAP, 2004)

  13. Implications for Today’s Majority Ethnolinguistic Community • With shift in population, many more individuals around us will be speaking Spanish (and other languages) as well as English

  14. Implications for Health Care • Issues related to access to health care • Issues related to acceptance of interventions by caregivers

  15. Cultural Disparities Persist • Saltapida and Ponsford (2007) studied 2 groups of patients with TBI in Australia and found CALD participants had poorer outcomes including employment, cognitive independence, mobility, social integration and greater anxiety • De la Plata, (2007) found higher rates of severe disability among Hispanics and Spanish speakers following TBI • Alamsaputra, (2006) found a disproportionate disadvantage for non-native English speakers when listening to synthesized speech

  16. Is Bilingualism Harmful or Beneficial to Children ? • Old research indicated bilingualism had negative effects • Newer studies show benefits

  17. How Many Students are Dual Language Learners? • In 2004: • 7 % of public school students were second language learners— • Approximately 3 million children

  18. How Many Dual Language Learners Will Have Communication Disorders? • Studies show that 10% of young children have some type of communication impairment. • Incidence could be higher when poverty or limited access to health care are factors.

  19. Determining if Dual Language Learner is Developing Normally • A true language impairment will be evident in both languages. Weakness in one is likely a feature of incomplete mastery of that language. (Barlow and Enriquez, 2007) • Best match for assessment will be educators and health care providers who speak the same language as the child.

  20. Strategies for Assessment of Dual Language Learner by Monolingual SLP • Seek information about child’s culture and language experience • Use interpreter/translator

  21. Child’s Language Experience • Age at which exposure to L2 began • Amount of exposure to L2 • Progress relative to siblings • Parents’ impressions

  22. Simultaneous Bilingualism • Child should have minimal interference between the languages

  23. Simultaneous Development of L1 and L2 • Simultaneous Bilingualism occurs in three different ways: • Parents’ L1 and community language L2 • One parent L1 and the other L2 • Home L1 and daycare L2

  24. Features of Development • At 18 months, a typically developing child easily determines what language is needed • Vocabulary • Efficiency of access to language • Codeswitching

  25. Red Flags for Language Disorder in Simultaneous Language Learners • Child is: • Unaware of the language he/she speaks • Does not respond in the language of the interaction • Seems less competent than other children in the family or community

  26. Sequential Biligualism • L2: “second language learners” • Child learns first language in infancy • Learns the second language later in childhood (3 years old or older)

  27. Features of Development • Diverse group of learners • Consider: • Age • Exposure to L1 and L2

  28. Age • Age: ability to acquire second language may decline as children approach adolescence • But…. • If the second language is introduced while the first language is still developing, progress in first language may stop or there may be regression in that language

  29. Home • Family members’ language use • Interaction with peers

  30. School • Age at school entry—likely a critical variable • Ability of school staff to support development in each language

  31. Age Related School Performance Number of years to reach 50th %ile in academics • 5-7 year olds needed 3-8 years • 8-11 year olds needed 2-5 years • 12-15 year olds needed 6-8 years

  32. Other Variables That May Affect Sequential Bilingual Language Development • Poverty • Community attitudes: Idea of additive bilingualism vs. subtractive bilingualism • Personality: self-concept, shy vs. extroverted • Anxiety • Motivation to fit in with peers

  33. Normal Features Associated with Second Language Learning in Sequential Language Learners • Silent period • Therefore, silence may not equal disorder

  34. Normal Features Associated with Second Language Learning (cont.) • Language Loss • Therefore, can be difficult to discern if this child has a specific language impairment

  35. Normal Features Associated with Second Language Learning (cont.) • Language Transfer: Cross-linguistic influence that languages may have on each other.

  36. Optimal Assessment • Performance in one language probably not the best indicator of ability • Assess in both languages whenever possible

  37. Two Special Situations • International Adoptions • Children with Known Developmental Delays

  38. International Adoptions This event induces subtractive bilingualism most of the time: The adoptive parents do not usually speak the language of the child they have adopted

  39. International Adoptions and Language Learning • Rate at which English is learned seems to vary with age at adoption: • < 2 years old at adoption • >2 years old at adoption

  40. International Adoptions (cont.) • Environmental deprivation • Influence of L1 on L2 • Language loss • Performance in L1 as adults • Academic performance

  41. Assessment of Internationally Adopted Children • Tests of gesture comprehension and use • The “catch up” period of several years that older L2 learners need does not apply • Testing in English appropriate much earlier

  42. Dual Language Learners with Developmental Delays • Assess in both languages • Determine the language of intervention • Proficiency in L1 and L2 • Avoid language loss

  43. Cultural Competence • An essential quality for effective engagement • A step toward decreasing health care disparities

  44. Culturally Effective Pediatric Health Care • AAP: Culture includes the full spectrum of values, behaviors, customs, language, ethnicity, gender, sexual orientation, religious beliefs, socioeconomic status and other distinct attributes of population groups.

  45. Influence of Cultural Awareness on Service Provision • Expect variations in • Expectations for adult-child interactions • Beliefs about the cause of disabilities/health problems

  46. ASHA Guidelines • Beliefs and values unique to that individual clinician-client encounter must be understood, protected, and respected. Care must be taken not to make assumptions about individuals based upon their particular culture, ethnicity, language, or life experiences that could lead to misdiagnosis or improper treatment of the client/patient. • Providers must enter into the relationship with awareness, knowledge, and skills about their own culture and cultural biases. • Providers should be prepared to be open and flexible in the selection, administration, and interpretation of diagnostic and/or treatment regimens. When cultural or linguistic differences may negatively influence outcomes, referral to, or collaboration with, others with the needed knowledge, skill, and/or experience is indicated.

  47. Increasing Cultural Sensitivity • Consider your own values and expectations • Read/research the family’s culture • Connect with members of the local cultural community • Consider family’s value system when setting goals

  48. VISION Model • V Values and beliefs of family and professional • I Interpretation of experiences of family with clinical process • S Structuring the relationship between the professional and the family • I Interaction style /verbal & nonverbal communication of professional and family • O Operational strategies for accomplishing goals • N Needs perceived by family and professional

  49. When Should AAC BeIntroduced ? • The guidelines are the same as for monolingual children: • Whenever there are concerns about developmental delays/slow progress • When there are obvious indicators that child is at risk for speech delays: e.g., limited vocalizations, identification of genetic syndrome with associated speech problems, motor disorder such as cerebral palsy

  50. What Should the Language of Intervention Be? • MUST support both home language and English • Parents need to teach their children in the language they know best • Provide parents with ideas to support language development in infants and toddlers