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Observational Learning

Observational Learning

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Observational Learning

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  1. Observational Learning Psychology

  2. Observational Learning We acquire knowledge and skills by observing and imitating others. Also known as social learning Examples: Learning a new language. Dancing or Sports Social behaviors Cooking

  3. Observational Learning Albert Bandura-Psychologist credited with effects of media on children through the use of the Bobo Doll experiment.

  4. The Bobo Doll Experiment Bandura had children watch a film in which an adult hit a Bobo doll aggressively There were 3 groups of children: The first group saw the adult being rewarded for his behavior The second group saw the adult being punished The last group saw the adult receive no consequences.

  5. The children were then put into a room full of toys that they could not touch; Many children became angry They were then placed into a second room full of toys including the Bobo doll The children who saw the adult being aggressive and rewarded, were more likely to imitate the behavior Those who saw the male being punished were less likely to imitate the aggressive behavior

  6. However, the children who saw the male receive no consequences were also more likely to imitate the aggressive behavior The children thought “nothing bad will happen this time” Albert Bandura

  7. Effects of Media on Children

  8. What are we learning? Children see Children do Beyonce and baby Onslaught Big Daddy Mean Girls Syndrome

  9. Types of Media Television Music and music videos Video games

  10. Content Analysis 67% of TV shows are violent. Violence is on the rise for both Cable and broadcast networks 14% increase in the last decade Few shows emphasize an anti-violence theme 40% of violent scenes on TV include humor 54% of the violence is lethal 51% of the violence shows no pain Of 9,000 shows analyzed over 4 years, only 4% employed an anti-violent theme

  11. More Stats… Children will see 200,000 violent acts on TV by the time they turn 18. Between the ages of 2-17, children will watch an average of 25 hours of TV per week or 3 1/2 hours of TV per day. How much do you watch?

  12. This applies to adults as well… • Psychologists urge us to not watch too much news. • People who watch a lot of news (especially local) tend to be more afraid of the city they live in. • After all, “If it bleeds, it leads”.

  13. Short Term effects Viewer Aggression Fear Desensitization

  14. Viewer Aggression Recent studies find that children who watch violent TV are at an increased risk for aggression. Even adults show increased aggression and anti-social behavior with exposure to violent media. s

  15. Fear Kids who watch a lot of TV are more likely to exhibit symptoms of anxiety, trauma, and post-traumatic stress disorder than low TV watchers. When kids watch scary events in the media they become more likely to fear it in real life. Fear induced in childhood is likely to linger into adulthood.

  16. Desensitization People can be affected negatively even after a minimal exposure to media violence. As a result some individuals experience a greater acceptance of violence and a decrease in empathy and concern for victims of violence.

  17. Other Effects Studies show that children who excessively watch TV: Have lower grades in school Read fewer books Exercise less Are overweight

  18. T.V may also lead to: Early Sexuality or promiscuous behavior Use of drugs and alcohol Delayed language development Less social interaction When TV is introduced to a country the crime rates in that country go up

  19. Something to think about…. • 2013- Most popular TV shows • No. 1- NCIS, followed closely by: • The Walking Dead • Criminal Minds • Orange is the New Black • Breaking Bad • Hannibal • The Following

  20. Something to think about… • Popular, family friendly shows of 2013 • The Big Bang Theory • Duck Dynasty • Modern Family • The Voice

  21. Nearly 10 years ago… 2005-The most family friendly show “Extreme Makeover: Home Edition” The worst family show…. “Desperate Housewives”

  22. In the 90’s 1996- Best Family show ”Touched by Angel” Worst Family Show “Married with Children”

  23. It’s Not Just Violence We Learn • When the TV Show “Friends” was introduced to Fiji, anorexic rates skyrocketed there.

  24. What happened to…..? Shows like “The Cosby Show” “Family Ties” “Growing Pains” “Boy Meets World”

  25. Are there more violent movies than TV shows? What about kid’s movies? What about movies…

  26. Violent Movies • Copycat Killings • Columbine High School Perpetrators claimed this Was their favorite movie.

  27. Popular Movies • 2014 (so far)- Captain America, Divergent • 2013- Iron Man 3, Hunger Games: Catching Fire

  28. Popular Movies • 2004- Spiderman 2, Harry Potter 3

  29. Popular Movies • 1994- Forrest Gump, Lion King

  30. Popular Movies • 1984- Beverly Hills Cop, Ghost Busters

  31. Popular Movies • 1974- Blazing Saddles, Towering Inferno

  32. Popular Movies • 1964-Mary Poppins, My Fair Lady

  33. Video Games • Violent video games- induce a physiological reaction • Release of adrenalin  heightened heart rates, respiration rate, blood pressure • Emotional reaction • Feel, think, and behave more aggressively, impulsively • Cognitively • Rewarded for repetitive, violent actions

  34. Video Games

  35. Something to Think About… • Video games twenty years ago

  36. Are we all going to be violent? • No! • We make our own decisions • Only a few, out of the millions of people turn out bad • BUT, it still effects our behaviors and thinking processes • Still important to be wary (especially for young children) of the massive amounts of violence we are exposed to every day