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Chapter 12

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Chapter 12

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  1. Chapter 12 Brazil

  2. Brazil • Country name: Federative Republic of Brazil, Brazil • Capital: Brasilia • Location: Eastern South America, bordering the Atlantic Ocean • Border countries:Argentin, Bolivia, Colombia, French Guiana, Guyana, Paraguay, Peru, Suriname, Uruguay, Venezuela

  3. Government type: federative republic • Administrative divisions: 26 states (estados, singular - estado) and 1 federal district (Distrito Federal) • Population: 182,032,604 (July 2003 est.) (most populous country in South America; the 6th in the world) • Languages: Portuguese (official), Spanish, English, French(Brazil is the only Portuguese speaking nation in the Americas) • Religions: Roman Catholic (nominal) 80%

  4. GDP – per capita: purchasing power parity - $7,600(95th in the world) (2002 est.) • Industries: textiles, shoes, chemicals, cement, lumber, iron ore, tin, steel, aircraft, motor vehicles and parts, other machinery and equipment • Currency: real (BRL)(CIA, World Fact Book)

  5. Important Facts • One of the top destinations in Americas • 3,8 million international tourist arrivals (4th after US, Canada and Mexico) • $ 3,1 billion international tourism receipts (the 4th again) (WTO, 2003) • Coastline: 7,491 km • Terrain: mostly flat to rolling lowlands in north; some plains, hills, mountains, and narrow coastal belt

  6. Climate: mostly tropical, but temperate in south(CIA, World Fact Book)

  7. Selling Points • Carnival, beaches, Rio de Janeiro, Iguacu Falls, the Amazon, native and imported cultural attractions, art, colonial towns and exciting nightlife

  8. Very Brief History • Brazil was a Portuguese colony for more than three centuries (between 16th - 19th centuries) • during the time, Africans brought to Brazil by Portuguese as slaves • became an independent nation in 1822 • from1875 until 1960, about 5 million people (mainly from Italy, Germany, Spain, Poland, Japan and the Middle East whose major intention was to make money - coffee plantation - and return to home) emigrated to Brazil. The largest Japanese community outside Japan lives in Sao Paulo.

  9. indigenous full-blooded Indians (speaking Tupi and Guarani languages), located mainly in the northern and western border regions and in the upper Amazon Basin, are less than 1% of the population today.

  10. Brasilia • built at the end of 1950s, replacing Rio as the capital • well planned city, shaped like an airplane • Impressive buildings; • Palacio do Congresso (the Capitol Building) • Palacio da Justica (the Supreme Court) • National Cathedral (having a crown shape with angels suspended within) • main television tower (nice view of the city)

  11. Rio de Janeiro • the most beautiful city of Brazil, has one of the world’s most magnificent harbors • city is divided by a mountain range into two zones, southern zone holds the most of the city’s sights • Sugar Loaf Mountain and Corcovado Mountain (where each visitor go up to, for a 360-degree view of Rio and Guanabara Bay) • Corcovado Mountain (where Christ the Redeemer statue stated at; has a beautiful view of Rio)

  12. famous beaches include Copacabana, Flamengo, Leblon, Ipanema • Maracana Stadium (the largest in the world holding 200.000 fans for soccer games) • Carmen Miranda (famous actress) Museum • Carnival (every year during four days there is Rio Carnival where every body dances in the streets. The shows start at 8 pm and continue until 8 am) • not only lovely but a lively city

  13. Salvador • Brazil’s longtime colonial capital, lies on Santos Bay • has a strong African influence because of African slaves working in the sugarcane fields more than 400 years ago • divided into two as upper and lower section; “Lacerda” elevator goes from one level to the other

  14. multicolored homes, red-tiled roofs, a great market, twisting and narrow cobblestone streets, great beaches, about 300 churches • Igreja de Sao Francisco Church (like the other Portuguese churches in Brazil looks plain on the outside but quite impressive on the inside) • Pelourinho (one of the oldest areas in town, has colonial architecture and a pillory where slaves were tortured) • there are also museums in this city: Museu da Cidade (tribal displays) and Brazilian Museum (African Displays) • Salvador also has a great Carnival but not as flashy as Rio.

  15. Sao Paulo • largest city in South America, founded in 1554 by Jesuit priests • a wide variety of international restaurants, fabulous shopping and very active nightlife are the main attractions • Praca de Se (the center of the city; praca, pronounced PRAH-sah, means square) • Praca da Republica (a lovely park) • Avenida Paoliste (commercial center of the city)

  16. Mc Donalds on Avenida Paolista (a restored mansion of coffee barons) • Ethnic neighborhoods are interesting areas of Sao Paula which provide the setting for exceptional restaurants and the city’s active nightlife: • Bela Vista and Bixiga (Italian) • Vinte e Cinco de Marco (Arabic) • Bom Tiro (Jewish) • Liberdade (Japanese)

  17. Iguacu Falls • located near the junction of Brazil, Argentina and Paraguay • “Iguacu” pronounced as eeh-gwa-SUE • stretches 4 km from bank to bank and reaches a height of 90 m. • can be visited from Rio or Sao Paulo; by train, road or riverboat (two days from Rio by boat) • four-minute helicopter ride over the falls is offered

  18. Vast Itaipu Dam is nearby, a dam jointly built by Brazil and Paraguay, one of the largest hydroelectric works in the world - 55 stories high and 8 km wide

  19. Amazon • second in length only to the Nile; passes through upper Brazil into the Atlantic Ocean • cities on Amazon are among the most fascinating in the country • Belem (large port city; 121 km inland from the Atlantic; from Belem, half-day river cruises are offered to see the jungle, birds, fishermen and dugout canoes

  20. Belem’s Ver-o-Peso Market offers fruit and vegetable, crocodile teeth, dried boa constrictors and voodoo charms • Manaus (another interesting city on Amazon; once called the “Paris of the Jungle”; serves as a base for tourist excursions exploring the mid-Amazon region; daytrips by riverboat to see the villages and hiking in the jungle (rain-forest programs) on foot)

  21. Amazonia National Park ( between Manaus and Belem; a huge national reserve of dense rain forest; cabins in the park (mostly preferred by the scientists) or nearby hotels in the town of Itaituba are the accommodations; during the rainy season toured by boat, during the drier period by walk)

  22. Costa Verde • “Green Coast” offers relaxing trips from Rio and Sao Paulo • drive from Rio to the city of Santos is beautiful: small beaches on one side of the road and jungle and mountains on the other • its Brazil’s leading commercial port • close by, nice towns are located such as Ubatuba (popular beach resort), Parati (colonial town)

  23. Pantanal • one of the world’s great wildlife reserves • trips should be booked through an adventure tour operator • has more than 350 varieties of fish (some weighing up to 80kg), and offers great opportunity for fishing

  24. Other Major Cities • Florianopolis (has a tropical bay; attractive colonial buildings, baroque churches, best surfing place in Brazil, active nightlife - bierhalles) • Olinda (has best-preserved colonial buildings in Brazil; architecture reflects both Portuguese and Dutch heritage) • Ouro Preto (the second best-preserved colonial town in Brazil; has cobblestone streets, baroque churches)

  25. Petropolis (Swiss-style town; summer retreat for the last emperor of Brazil; attractions include Crystal Palace, Gothic cathedral, Museu Imperial) • Recife (called the “Venice of Brazil” for its canals and bridges, dirtier than Italian version; has a number of interesting museums of trains, sugar etc.; 17th and 18th century churches, fantastic carnival rivals with Rio and Salvador)

  26. Things to Remember • The Amazon river and its tributaries account for one-fifth of the world's fresh water