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Sand Equivalent: Fact or Fiction PowerPoint Presentation
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Sand Equivalent: Fact or Fiction

Sand Equivalent: Fact or Fiction

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Sand Equivalent: Fact or Fiction

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  1. Sand Equivalent: Fact or Fiction J.S Lowe, Winstone AggregatesDr D.J Wilson, The University of AucklandProf. P.M Black, The University of Auckland

  2. Contents Overview of common NZ cleanliness tests Sand Equivalent Initial Findings from Experimental Programme Conclusions Recommendations for further work

  3. Current New Zealand tests to classify the cleanliness of fine aggregates and sand • Limit the amount of -75um material • Sand Equivalent • Developed 1954 by Hveem • Methylene Blue or Clay Index • Developed 1967 by Jones • Plasticity Index • Developed 1911 by Atterberg

  4. When are the tests applied to classify the cleanliness of fine aggregates and sand • Typically: • All NZ Specifications limit the 75um Material • All commonly adopt Sand Equivalent • Clay Index less popular not used in concrete industry • Plasticity Index mainly used in roading applications • No tests adapted specifically for uniqueness of NZ Rock sources • SE testing to establish the cleanliness >$2m/annum • Local aggregates are often dismissed due to non compliance with National NZ Specifications

  5. Sand Equivalent (SE) • Quickest of current tests taking approx 30 mins • Settling Test • Not directly measuring clay content, gives a potential • Simple and relatively cheap • Accuracy and repeatability concerns

  6. Initial Findings : Sand Equivalent Versus Clay Index • Single quarry source & multiple products • Sample size = 90 • Lower CI with increasing SE • 37% of samples ≥40 (Sand Equivalent) • 87% of samples ≤3 (Clay Index)

  7. Initial Findings: Sand Equivalent versus Clay Index • Multiple Quarries and Products • Sample size = 197 • 24% of samples ≥40 (Sand Equivalent) • 74% of samples ≤3 (Clay Index)

  8. Comparison with % passing 75um • Single quarry source & multiple products • Sample size = 90 • 37% of samples ≥40 (Sand Equivalent) • 87% of samples ≤3 (Clay Index) • 63% of samples ≤7 (% Passing 75um)

  9. Multiple Quarries and Products • Sample size = 400 • 24% of samples ≥40 (Sand Equivalent) • 74% of samples ≤3 (Clay Index)

  10. AQA Technical Committee 1980 • Don Ferguson

  11. A suggested approach? • Steady State Sand Equivalent • Allow full settlement to occur • Normalised Clay Index • CIn = CI ( P x Wp ) • Wci • Where: • CIn = normalised clay index • CI = clay index (NZS 4407:1991) • P = Percentage passing 75um (from particle size distribution) • Wp = Weight of sample (from particle size distribution) • Wci = Weight of sample (clay index)

  12. Conclusions Percentage of fines in NZ aggregate products does not appear excessive Evidence to suggest that using Sand Equivalent as primary test method is not maximising the use of NZ aggregates Clay Index and Sand Equivalent give differing levels of conformance for same sample Specifications can create testing and consistency issues for aggregate industry Specifications are reliant on adopted test methods for aggregates

  13. Further work • Relate results to specific swelling clays using XRD data. • Analysis of the ultrafines. • Comparison of SEss to CIn. • Develop SE and CI Prediction Models.