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CS 552 Computer Networks

CS 552 Computer Networks

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CS 552 Computer Networks

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  1. CS 552 Computer Networks Fall 2005 Rich Martin

  2. Course Description • Graduate course on computer networking • Undergraduate knowledge of networking assumed • Packets,routing (DV,link-state), layering and encapsulation, protocol stacks, congestion control … • Goals: • Learn about computer networking research • Gain skills needed to perform research • Problem selection • Solution and research methodologies • Presentation, “marketing”

  3. Overview • Administrative • Course Topics • Overview and history of the Internet • A Taxonomy of Communication Networks

  4. Administrative • Instructor: Richard Martin • TA: Robert Moore • Course web page: http://www.cs.rutgers.edu./~rmartin/teaching/fall05/cs553/ • Check web page for • Readings, assignments, due dates, announcements

  5. Expected work • Readings and discussion • No write-ups • Two assignments • Experiments Measuring Wide Area Internet properties • Position paper • Defend a position related to computer networks • Reviews of other student’s papers • Revised position paper • Project • A small research project

  6. Class format • Short lecture on readings for the week • 3-4 readings for the week • I will present some basic material + context • Discussion • Strengths and weaknesses of the papers • E.g, readability,problem, methodologies, results, contribution, applicability. • Older papers: did the results stand up?

  7. Course Topics • Routing: • paradigms • IP routing • router design • Queuing theory and traffic analysis • Network tomography • Reliable transmission • Quality of service • Dependability • Security • Peer-to-Peer • Wireless

  8. Routing Paradigms • What does a destination address mean? • Not all networks use “node centric” routing • Explore networking address spaces • Node-centric • packet and circuit switched • Geometric • position-centric routing • Application Data • Publish/subscribe routing

  9. IP Routing • Global Internet uses: • node-centric routing • IP address space • How to route within this address space? • How to pick paths between a source and destination? • Implications of routing choices • Performance, security, reliability, economics

  10. Router Design • Routing vs. Forwarding • Routing: which path • Forwarding: getting the packet from the input to the right output(s) • Forwarding design has wide ranging impacts: • Latency, bandwidth, jitter • Security, tomography, billing (who pays) • Router design internals are driven by forwarding

  11. Network Tomography • No central authority • Network built from the “bottom up” • A user’s data crosses many “black boxes” • How to figure out state of the interior by observations at the edges? • Analysis of results of probing network

  12. Queuing theory/traffic analysis • How to mathematically describe data motion in computer networks? • Probabilistic, stochastic analysis • Queuing theory • Single queues • Interconnected queues • Traffic analysis • Higher-level traffic descriptions

  13. Reliable transmission • Huge interconnected system • No central point of control! • No central design authority! • Failures, delays common • How to insure data arrives as intended? • Forward error correction • Backward error detection/retransmission • Sum of individual decisions has huge impact • Fairness, efficiency, performance

  14. Quality of Service • Reliability is the 0th order quality metric • Do all applications require same network performance? • Bandwidth? Latency? Jitter? • Describe what is “quality” • Networks that deliver different levels of quality

  15. Dependability • Old world: • E-mail, news, telnet, FTP • New World: • E-commerce, “all daily activities”, (no network -> can’t function?), emergency response? • Robustness beyond packet loss • Human faults (e.g. misconfigurations) • Disasters (e.g. fire in Baltimore tunnel) • Bugs • Active Attacks

  16. Security • Old Internet: world of good guys • Problems due to bugs, bad algorithms • Today: real world has bad guys Hucksters (sellers), crackers, vandals, terrorists, thieves, governments … • How can we make the network robust to bad guys? • Trust, encryption, authentication, non-repudiation

  17. Peer-to-Peer • Biggest application in last 5 years • Huge percentage of the traffic • Issues in P2P systems: • Legal • Scalability • Search and retrieval • Performance • Reliability

  18. Wireless • Old internet: all machines wired • New Internet: many wireless devices • What are the impacts on: • Mobility? • Performance? • Security? • Economics?

  19. Break

  20. Overview • Administrative • Course Topics • Overview and history of the Internet • A Taxonomy of Communication Networks

  21. What is a Communication Network?(End-system Centric View) • Network offers one basic service: move information • Bird, fire, messenger, truck, telegraph, telephone, Internet … • Another example, transportation service: move objects • Horse, train, truck, airplane ... • What distinguish different types of networks? • The services they provide • What distinguish services? • Latency • Bandwidth • Loss rate • Number of end systems • Service interface (how to invoke the service?) • Others • Reliability, unicast vs. multicast, real-time...

  22. What is a Communication Network?(Infrastructure Centric View) • Communication medium: electron, photon • Network components: • Links – carry bits from one place to another (or maybe multiple places): fiber, copper, satellite, … • Interfaces – attache devices to links • Switches/routers – interconnect links: electronic/optic, crossbar/Banyan • Hosts – communication endpoints: workstations, PDAs, cell phones, toasters • Protocols – rules governing communication between nodes • TCP/IP, ATM, MPLS, SONET, Ethernet, X.25 • Applications: Web browser, X Windows, FTP, ...

  23. Types of Networks • Geographical distance • System Area Networks (SAN): Myrinet, Infiniband • Local Area Networks (LAN): Ethernet, Token ring, FDDI • Metropolitan Area Networks (MAN): DQDB, SMDS • Wide Area Networks (WAN): X.25, ATM, frame relay • Caveat: SAN, LAN, MAN, WAN may mean different things • Service, network technology, networks • Information type • Data networks vs. telecommunication networks vs. internal computer networks • Application type • Special purpose networks: Sensing, airline reservation network, banking network, credit card network, telephony • General purpose network: Internet

  24. Types of Networks • Right to use • Private: enterprise networks • Public: telephony network, Internet • Ownership of protocols • Proprietary: SNA • Open: IP • Technologies • Terrestrial vs. satellite • Wired vs. wireless • Protocols • IP, AppleTalk, SNA

  25. The Internet (cont’d) • Global scale, general purpose, heterogeneous-technologies, public, computer network • Internet Protocol • Open standard: Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) as standard body ( http://www.ietf.org ) • Technical basis for other types of networks • Intranet: enterprise IP network • Developed by the research community

  26. History of the Internet • 70’s: started as a research project, 56 kbps, < 100 computers • 80-83: ARPANET and MILNET split, • 85-86: NSF builds NSFNET as backbone, links 6 Supercomputer centers, 1.5 Mbps, 10,000 computers • 87-90: link regional networks, NSI (NASA), ESNet(DOE), DARTnet, TWBNet (DARPA), 100,000 computers • 90-92: NSFNET moves to 45 Mbps, 16 mid-level networks • 94: NSF backbone dismantled, multiple private backbones • Today: backbones run at 10 Gbps, 10s millions computers in 150 countries

  27. Time Line of the Internet • Source: Internet Society

  28. Growth of the Internet • Number of Hosts on the Internet: Aug. 1981 213 Oct. 1984 1,024 Dec. 1987 28,174 Oct. 1990 313,000 Oct. 1993 2,056,000 Apr. 1995 5,706,000 Jan. 1997 16,146,000 Jan. 1999 56,218,000 Jan. 2001 109,374,000 Jan 2003 171,638,297 Data available at: http://www.isc.org/

  29. Internet Standardization Process • All standards of the Internet are published as RFC (Request for Comments). But not all RFCs are Internet Standards • available: http://www.ietf.org • A typical (but not only) way of standardization is: • Internet Drafts • RFC • Proposed Standard • Draft Standard (requires 2 working implementation) • Internet Standard (declared by IAB) • David Clark, MIT, 1992: "We reject: kings, presidents, and voting. We believe in: rough consensus and running code.”

  30. Services Provided by the Internet • Shared access to computing resources • Telnet (1970’s) • Shared access to data/files • FTP, NFS, AFS (1980’s) • Communication medium over which people interact • Email (1980’s), on-line chat rooms (1990’s) • Instant messaging, IP Telephony (2000’s) • A medium for information dissemination • USENET (1980’s) • WWW (1990’s) • Replacing newspaper, magazine? • Audio, video (2000’s) • Replacing radio, CD, TV…

  31. Overview • Administrative • Course Topics • Overview and history of the Internet • A Taxonomy of Communication Networks

  32. A Taxonomy of Communication Networks • Communication networks can be classified based on the way in which the nodes exchange information: Communication Network SwitchedCommunication Network BroadcastCommunication Network Packet-SwitchedCommunication Network Circuit-SwitchedCommunication Network Virtual Circuit Network Datagram Network

  33. Broadcast vs. Switched Communication Networks • Broadcast communication networks • Information transmitted by any node is received by every other node in the network • E.g., LANs (Ethernet, Wavelan) • Problem: coordinate the access of all nodes to the shared communication medium (Multiple Access Problem) • Switched communication networks • Information is transmitted to a sub-set of designated nodes • E.g., WANs (Telephony Network, Internet) • Problem: how to forward information to intended node(s) • Done by special nodes (e.g., routers, switches) running routing protocols

  34. A Taxonomy of Communication Networks Communication Network SwitchedCommunication Network BroadcastCommunication Network Packet-SwitchedCommunication Network Circuit-SwitchedCommunication Network Virtual Circuit Network Datagram Network

  35. Circuit Switching • Three phases • circuit establishment • data transfer • circuit termination • If circuit not available: “Busy signal” • Examples • Telephone networks • ISDN (Integrated Services Digital Networks)

  36. Circuit Establishment Data Transmission Circuit Termination Timing in Circuit Switching Host 1 Host 2 Node 1 Node 2 DATA processing delay at Node 1 propagation delay between Host 1 and Node 1 propagation delay between Host 2 and Node 1

  37. Circuit Switching • A node (switch) in a circuit switching network Node incoming links outgoing links

  38. Circuit Switching: Multiplexing/Demultiplexing • Time divided in frames and frames divided in slots • Relative slot position inside a frame determines which conversation the data belongs to • Needs synchronization between sender and receiver • In case of non-permanent conversations • Needs to dynamic bind a slot to a conservation • How to do this?

  39. A Taxonomy of Communication Networks Communication Network SwitchedCommunication Network BroadcastCommunication Network Packet-SwitchedCommunication Network Circuit-SwitchedCommunication Network Virtual Circuit Network Datagram Network

  40. Packet Switching • Data are sent as formatted bit-sequences, so-called packets • Packets have the following structure: • Header and Trailer carry control information (e.g., destination address, check sum) • Each packet is passed through the network from node to node along some path (Routing) • At each node the entire packet is received, stored briefly, and then forwarded to the next node (Store-and-Forward Networks) • Typically no capacity is allocated for packets Header Data Trailer

  41. Packet Switching • A node in a packet switching network Node incoming links outgoing links Memory

  42. Packet Switching: Multiplexing/Demultiplexing • Data from any conversation can be transmitted at any given time • How to tell them apart? • Use meta-data (header) to describe data

  43. A Taxonomy of Communication Networks Communication Network SwitchedCommunication Network BroadcastCommunication Network Packet-SwitchedCommunication Network Circuit-SwitchedCommunication Network Virtual Circuit Network Datagram Network

  44. Datagram Packet Switching • Each packet is independently switched • Each packet header contains destination address • No resources are pre-allocated (reserved) in advance • Example: IP networks

  45. Packet 1 Packet 1 Packet 1 Packet 2 Packet 2 Packet 2 Packet 3 Packet 3 Packet 3 Timing of Datagram Packet Switching Host 1 Host 2 Node 1 Node 2 propagation delay between Host 1 and Node 2 transmission time of Packet 1 at Host 1 processing delay of Packet 1 at Node 2

  46. Datagram Packet Switching Host C Host D Host A Node 1 Node 2 Node 3 Node 5 Host B Host E Node 7 Node 6 Node 4