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Part 1: Principles of Geography

Part 1: Principles of Geography

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Part 1: Principles of Geography

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  1. Part 1:Principles of Geography

  2. #1What is Geography? Objectives: 1. Define geography as a field of study2. Explain the difference between physical and human geography3. Identify examples of how geography is used in the world around us

  3. #1What is Geography? • Geography is the study of the earth’s surface • Geo=world or earth • Graphy=to study or write something or describe something

  4. #1What is Geography? • 3 Big Questions: • What? • What is an amusement park? What are humans doing there? • Where? • Where are amusement parks typically located? • Why there? • Why are amusement parks located in this particular part of the US or in this part of Florida?

  5. #1What is Geography? • Physical Geographyis the study of the natural features, the patterns, and processes that exist on the earth’s surface • Landforms (mountains, valleys, canyons) • Bodies of water (oceans, seas, lakes, rivers) • Geological processes (plate tectonics, weathering, erosion, climates, environments)

  6. #1What is Geography? • Human Geographyis the study of human behavior – how humans interact with each other and the world around them • Cultures, societies, value systems • Cities, governments, economics

  7. #1What is Geography? • Why study geography? • Geography helps us better understand the world around us • The better we understand the world around us and the people that inhabit the world, the better we can plan for future generations and ensure the continuity of mankind

  8. #1What is Geography? • How is geography used:? • Cartography: the art of mapmaking • Maps help us navigate around the world • Meteorology: study of the earth’s atmosphere and its weather conditions • Meteorologists help us predict & prepare for disastrous storms & climate change

  9. #1What is Geography? • How is geography used:? • Demography: the study of human populations • Demographers try to understand factor that cause human populations to grow & decline • Urban Planning: to plan for the future of cities • Urban planners use demography to plan for future public spaces, transportation, electricity, & water systems

  10. #1What is Geography? • Review: • Define geography as a field of study • Explain the difference between physical and human geography • Identify examples of how geography is used in the world around us

  11. #2Understanding Geography Objectives: Explore the 6 essential elements of geography Identify ways geographers use the 6 essential elements of geography to interpret our world

  12. #2Understanding Geography • The world in spatial terms: • Where things are located and how things are related to each other specifically • Places and Regions: • Describe what places are like and figure out how places can be grouped into distinct regions

  13. #2Understanding Geography • Physical Systems: • Examine & understand how the earth’s natural processes are changing and shaping the earth’s surface as well as how the earth’s environments are different from each other • thunderstorms, volcanic eruptions, earthquakes, hurricanes • Human Systems: • Refers to everything that humans do in their daily lives, where they live & why they settle there , and what types of cultures humans have created

  14. #2Understanding Geography • Environment in Society: • How humans affect & interact with the environment • Use wood for building & paper, build wind turbines to generate electricity = we’re adapting the land to meet our needs and wants • Wearing warm clothing & Police boats in Venice, Italy=we adapt to our environment • Uses of Geography: • Study the past to better plan for the future

  15. #2Understanding Geography 5 Themes of Geography: • Location • Place • Human-Environment Interaction • Movement • Regions

  16. #2Understanding Geography Review: • Explore the 6 essential elements of geography • Identify ways geographers use the 6 essential elements of geography to interpret our world

  17. #3 Organizing Our World Objectives: Understand the division of the earth into continents, oceans, and hemispheres Identify the equator and Prime Meridian Explain the concepts of latitude and longitude Describe the earth’s time zones and the International Date Line

  18. #3Organizing Our World • Earth’s surface is made of land & water. • The land masses are divided into 7 continents: • North America, South America, Africa, Antarctica, Australia, Europe, Asia (largest)

  19. #3Organizing Our World • The earth has ONE ocean, but it’s divided into different parts. • Pacific, Atlantic, Arctic, Indian, & Southern (not recognized by National Geographic Society) • Cardinal Directions • North, South, East, West

  20. #3Organizing Our World • 4 Hemispheres • Equator divides earth into Northern & Southern Hemispheres • Prime Meridian divides earth into Eastern and Western Hemispheres • Equator = 0’ latitude • Latitude = imaginary lines that run west to east, measure distance north/south of equator (0-90’ north or 0-90’ south)

  21. #3Organizing Our World • Prime Meridian=0’ longitude • Longitude = imaginary lines that run north to south, measure distance east/west from the Prime Meridian (0-180’ east, 0-180’ west) • International Date Line • 180’ opposite the Prime Meridian • Determines which day it is, crossing this line begins a new day!

  22. #3Organizing Our World • Earth has 24 Time Zones • Because it takes the earth 24 hours to rotate on its axis (not revolution - revolution takes 1 year!) • UTC = Coordinated Universal Time

  23. #3Organizing Our World Review: • Understand the division of the earth into continents, oceans, and hemispheres • Identify the equator and Prime Meridian • Explain the concepts of latitude and longitude • Describe the earth’s time zones and the International Date Line

  24. #4 Getting FamiliarWith Maps Objectives: Identify the purposes of map elements Explore the uses for and characteristics of different types of maps Understand what is meant by map projection Compare and contrast commonly used map projections

  25. #4Getting Familiar with Maps • Map = a visual representation of the earth’s surface • Title = indicates the purpose of the map • Legend (or key) = helps us interpret what is being shown on the map • Compass Rose = gives us the cardinal directions north, south, east, west

  26. #4Getting Familiar with Maps • Scale = a tool that helps us to estimate distances • Physical Map = shows the physical shape of the earth’s surface such as landforms and bodies of water • Topographical Map = a type of physical map that uses lines to show both elevation and slope

  27. #4Getting Familiar with Maps • Political Map = maps that show political borders and boundaries as well as capital cities and other cities • Special Purpose Maps (or thematic maps) = maps that show patterns happening across the earth’s surface • Population density, natural resources, climate zones, etc.

  28. #4Getting Familiar with Maps • There are combination political/ physical maps that show landforms, bodies of water, and political borders • Distortion = 2D maps are not 100% accurate because distances and shapes of the continents and oceans are distorted when the earth is made flat

  29. #4Getting Familiar with Maps • Mercator Projection • Created by projecting earth onto a cylinder • Has perfectly perpendicular lines of longitude and latitude • Heavily distorted • Goode Equal-Area Projection • Unwrapping earth like an orange peel • Accurately illustrates the shapes and sizes of the earth’s continents but the oceans are split apart

  30. #4Getting Familiar with Maps • WinkelTripel Projection • Created using mathematical formulas to calculate distances so there are small amounts of distortion • Very visually appealing, but still distorted • Official map projection used by the National Geographic Society

  31. #4Getting Familiar with Maps Review: • Identify the purposes of map elements • Explore the uses for and characteristics of different types of maps • Understand what is meant by map projection • Compare and contrast commonly used map projections

  32. #5 New TechnologiesIn Geography Objectives: Describe how remote sensing helps geographers gather information Explore how the global positioning system is used to map our world Explain how geographic information systems help geographers understand our world Apply new geographic technologies to plan for the future and to find solutions to problems

  33. #5 New Technologies in Geography • Remote sensing allows geographers to study something without actually being there • Answers the “what?” question 3 types: • Radar • Satellite imagery • Aerial photographs

  34. #5 New Technologies in Geography • Radar: • Type of remote sensing that uses radio waves to determine direction, distance, and height of objects • Operates in all types of weather • Used by meteorologists to forecast weather & natural disasters • Used to measure elevation of different landforms • Used to control air traffic at airports

  35. #5 New Technologies in Geography • Satellite Imagery: • Man-made objects (satellites) that orbit around the earth taking pictures (imagery) • Used to study environmental changes, calculate urban growth, track the scope of natural disasters, and create more accurate maps that are available to geographers

  36. #5 New Technologies in Geography • Aerial Photographs • Photographs taken from the sky, typically from airplanes and helicopters • Show changes on the earth’s surface such as natural disasters, growth of cities over time, and changes in the environment (deforestation in Brazil) • Complement data from satellites

  37. #5 New Technologies in Geography • GPS = Global Positioning System • Answers the “where?” question • There are 24 satellites in the atmosphere that send radio signals to receivers. • We can find our exact location on the earth (air, land, and sea) using GPS

  38. #5 New Technologies in Geography • GIS= Geographic Information Systems • Computer software allows geographers to take specific types of information and plot that information on a map. Then we can see the patterns that emerge. • Answers the “why there?” question

  39. #5 New Technologies in Geography Review: • Describe how remote sensing helps geographers gather information • Explore how the global positioning system is used to map our world • Explain how geographic information systems help geographers understand our world • Apply new geographic technologies to plan for the future and to find solutions to problems

  40. Part 2:Social Studies Skills

  41. #1 Making Inferences & Drawing Conclusions Objectives:

  42. #2 Analyzing Date to Understand Change Objectives:

  43. #3 Common Issues Across Places & Times Objectives:

  44. #4 Connecting the Past to Present Issues Objectives: