Early Modern Art
From Realism to Impressionism: Édouard Manet • Rejected by the Salon • Manet becomes hero to nonconformist • Greatly influenced Monet and others (He adopted the Impressionist approach about 1873) • Impressionists emerge Le Dejeuner sur l’Herbe
From Realism to Impressionism • The Gleaners, 1857 • The Barbizon School • Realism w/o the “drama” of Romanticism
Impressionism • concentration on the general impression produced by a scene or object • the use of unmixed primary colors and small strokes to simulate actual reflected light. • Principal Impressionist painters: • Claude Monet • Pierre Auguste Renoir • Berthe Morisot soleil levant
Impressionism Water Lillies, 1903 Monet’sTulip Fields
Impressionism • Monet’s Port at Argenteuil • Two common Impressionist themes • Leisure • Industrial backdrop
Impressionism Renoir’s At the Concert
Impressionism • Edgar Degas (below) • Paul Cézanne (right) also painted in an Impressionist style for a time in the early 1870s.
Themes in Early Modern Art • Uncertainty/insecurity. • Disillusionment. • The subconscious. • Overt sexuality. • Violence & savagery.
Edvard Munch: The Scream (1893) Expressionism • Using bright colors to express a particular emotion. • art that raises subjective feelings above objective observations.
Gustav Klimt: Judith I (1901) Vienna Secessionists • Disrupt the conservative values of Viennese society. • Obsessed with the self. • Man is a sexual being, leaning toward despair. • No “doctrine”: anything goes
Gustav Klimt: Wrogie sily (1901)
Gustav Klimt: Adele Bloch-Bauer I • Sold in 2006 • $135,000,000!!
Henri Matisse: Carmelina(1903) FAUVE • The use of intense colors in a violent, and uncontrolled way. • “Wild Beast.”
Henri Matisse: Open Window(1905)
Georges Braque: Violin & Candlestick (1910) CUBISM • The subject matter is broken down, analyzed, and reassembled in abstract form. • Cezanne The artist should treat nature in terms of the cylinder, the sphere, and the cone.
Georges Braque: Woman with a Guitar(1913)
Pablo Picasso: Woman with aFlower(1932)
George Grosz Grey Day(1921) Dadaism • Ridiculed contemporary culture & traditional art forms. • Nonsense, travesty, incongruity. • The collapse during WW I of social and moral values. • Nihilistic.
Dadaism • The First Dada Manifesto (Hugo Ball) • July 14, 1916. • 1. Dada is international in perspective and seeks to bridge differences, • 2. Dada is antagonistic toward established society in the modern avant-garde, Bohemian tradition of the épater-le-bourgeios (“to shock the middle class”) posture, and • 3. Dada is a new tendency in art that seeks to change conventional attitudes and practices in aesthetics, society, and morality."
George Grosz: Daum Marries Her Pedantic AutomatonGeorge in May, 1920, John Heartfield is Very Glad of II(1919-1920)
George Grosz The Pillarsof Society(1926) Bourgeois Logic and Reason Led to Destruction
Marcel Duchamp: Nude Descending a Staircase(1912)
Salvador Dali: Soft Construction with Boiled Beans (Premonition of Civil War), 1936 Surrealism • Late 1920s-1940s. • Came from the nihilistic genre of DaDa. • Influenced by Freud’s theories on psychoanalysis and the subconscious. • Confusing & startling images like those in dreams.
The Manifesto of Surrealism • Andre Breton, 1924 • “based on the belief in the superior reality of certain forms of association hitherto neglected, in the omnipotence of the dream, and in the disinterested play of thought.”
Salvador Dali The Accommodation of Desire
Salvador Dali The Apparition of the Face and Fruit Dish on a Beach (1938)
Salvador Dali: Geopoliticus Child Watching the Birth of a New Man (1943)