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Logos, Icons, & Descriptive Graphics Susan Sabiston Overview Logos Define, History, Design Icons Define, History, Design Descriptive Graphics Define, History, Design Logos A logo is a name, symbol or trademark designed for easy recognition . Beginnings
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Logos, Icons, & Descriptive Graphics Susan Sabiston
Overview • Logos • Define, History, Design • Icons • Define, History, Design • Descriptive Graphics • Define, History, Design
Logos A logo is a name, symbol or trademark designed for easy recognition. Beginnings • 13th century: Trademarks for merchant, blacksmith, masons, also watermarks and crests • 19th century: Industrial manufacturing • Products manufactured at a higher rate and shipped nationally • New competition • Illiteracy
Logos Today • Too many logos • Every company, corporation, product, service, agency….. Has a logo • Name design
Logo Design A Good Logo should: • Be unique • Be Reproducable • Resizable • Color, B&W, fax, on fabric • Follow basic design principles • Space, color, form, clarity • Represent the company appropriately • Speak to the target audience
Icons • Icons are small signs standing for objects, processes, structures, or data. • A computer icon is a small graphic, usually ranging from 16 pixels by 16 pixels up to 128 pixels by 128 pixels, which represents a file, folder, application or device on a computer operating system.
History of Icons • 1960’s - Ivan Sutherlands Sketchpad • 1973 - The concept of the computer “icon” formalized by David Smith. • 1976 - Icons were revised and developed as a tool for making computer interfaces easier for novices by Xerox Palo Alto Research Center for the Xerox Star 8010. • 1981 - The Xerox Star 8010 was the first computer to implement the metaphors “desktop,” “window,” and “icon.”
Apple Lisa • Lisa 7/7 • LisaWrite • LisaCalc • LisaGraph • LisaList • LisaProject • LisaDraw • LisaTerminal
Icons Today • Virtually every major computer operating system has the ability to use an icon-based graphical user interface (GUI) to display information. • The creation of a good function icon can be considered as an art form in itself
Icon Types • Application Icons • Hardware Icons • Utility Icons • Removable Media Icons • Toolbar Icons • Document Icons • Printer Icons • Viewer Icons • Player Icons • Accessory Icons
Icon Design An Icon should: • Meet the needs of the audience • Implement the appropriate perspective • Use shadow and single light source • Use universal imagery that people will easily recognize • Be Simple • Use color smartly
Descriptive Graphics • A Descriptive Graphic is visual representation of information or data. • Also known as an information graphic, infogram. Common types of descriptive graphics are: • Chart • Graph • Diagram • Topographic Map • Map • Signage System
History • 7500 BC Prehistory - Maps • 1786 - W.Playfair developed first known graphs • 1876 - first chemical bond representation by James J. Sylvester Dr John Snow Cholera Map, 1854 A contaminated water pump in Broad Street proved to be the source for the spread of cholera in London.
Today • Information graphics are specialized forms of depiction that represent their content in sophisticated and often abstract ways. • Fundamental decoding skill must be applied for individual elements such as graphics and icons. • Commonly used forms: Schedules, road maps, daily weather charts, transport system
Design of Descriptive Graphics • Organize • Reveal the Data • Focus on the content • Several levels of detail • Purpose • Make large data comprehensible
Web links Map of creativity http://www.ngf.org.uk/map/map.html Huricane Katrina http://www.nytimes.com/packages/html/national/2005_HURRICANEKATRINA_GRAPHIC/index.html?adxnnl=1&adxnnlx=1129435560-xjHq+2bbTGgN66jhTJjKFw Travel time http://www.princeton.edu/~ina/maps/non_geographic/index.html
References Books Marcus, Aaron (1992). Graphic design for electronic documents and user interfaces. New York, N.Y. Addison-Wesley. RAJAMANICKAM, VENKATESH (2005) Infographics Seminar Handout. National Institute of Design. Ahmedabad. Rosenfeld, L., & Morville, P. (2002). Information Architecture for the World Wide Web (2nd ed.). Cambridge ; Sebastopol, CA: O'Reilly. Sassoon, Rosemary, & Albertine Gaur (1997). Signs, symbols and icons : pre-history to the computer age. Exeter : Intellect. Tufte, Edward R. (1983) Visual Display of Quantitative Information. Cheshire, Conn. : Graphics Press Tufte, Edward R. (1991) Envisioning information.Cheshire, Conn.: Graphics Press Van Duyne, D. K., Landay, J. A., & Hong, J. I. (2002). The Design of Sites. Addison-Wesley.
References Websites Apple Human Interface Guidelines Copyright http://developer.apple.com/documentation/UserExperience/ Conceptual/OSXHIGuidelines/index.html GUIdebook by Marcin by Marcin Wichary http://www.guidebookgallery.org/ EdwardTufte.com http://www.edwardtufte.com Wikipedia http://www.wikipedia.org/ Tube Graphics http://www.tubegraphics.co.jp