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The Enlightenment in Europe

The Enlightenment in Europe

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The Enlightenment in Europe

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  1. The Enlightenment in Europe Can reasonable laws apply to human behavior?

  2. Tow views on government • Hobbes – people are naturally selfish and an absolute monarchy is needed to create order and obedience • Social Contract = People give up their rights to a strong leader in order to have an orderly government • John Locke – people can learn from experiences and improve themselves; favored self-government and thought government should protect peoples’ natural rights: • Life • Liberty • Property

  3. Locke thought that if a government sucked, the people could overthrow it! Hobbes thought people were selfish and nasty Two Philosophers from England (lookin’ good)

  4. French Philosophes Advocate Reason • Philosophe = French word for philosophers • Five major concepts that the philosophes focused on: • Reason – truth can be discovered through reason • Nature – nature is good and reasonable • Happiness – people who live by nature’s laws will find happiness and well-being ON earth (not just in the afterlife) • Progress – society can and should improve • Liberty – through wisdom and reason, society will be set free

  5. I wonder if his hair smelled? Used satire to combat ignorance Often targeted the clergy, the aristocracy and the government Liked the English government Fought for tolerance, reason, freedom of speech and freedom of religion “crush the evil thing!” was the way he ended his letters. Weird, huh? Voltaire combats intolerance

  6. Montesquieu advocated separation of powers in government (modern day checks and balances) Rousseau thought civilization corrupted people Advocated direct democracy Montesquieu and Rousseau

  7. Published book On Crimes and Punishment – wanted speedy trials and better treatment for prisoners Wanted torture and capital punishment abolished Punishment should fit the crime Influenced modern criminal law reform in Europe and North America Beccaria promotes criminal justice

  8. Women and the Enlightenment • Women were still expected to be good wives and mothers, and many men thought that educated women would be idle and wicked • Mary Wollstonecraft published A Vindication of the Rights of Women – argued that women needed education to be useful and virtuous, and advocated women’s participation in government • Many wealthy women helped spread Enlightenment ideas by having big social gatherings

  9. Education makes mothers better mothers right? That’s what Mary thought - Enlightenment = big deal b/c people examined such principles as the divine right of monarchs, the union of church and state and unequal social classes and found them unreasonable Many thoughts impacted French and American Revolutions and our current views on politics Impact of the Enlightenment