AXED-590 Emerging Agricultural Issues in Your Community NMSU-Fall Semester November 11th, 2007 Presented by: Cary C.S. Hamilton Program Manger NMDA- Pesticide Compliance Pesticide Registration, Endangered Species, Pesticide Disposal & Pick-Up NMSU Las Cruces, NM BIOFUELS
What are Biofuels? • Biofuels: Fuels made from cellulosic biomass resources. Biofuels include ethanol, biodiesel, and methanol. *Also methane gas for heat. • Sources of Biomass: • Agricultural Crops • Tree Grown for Energy Production • Plants (including aquatic plants and grasses) • Residues • Fibers • Animal Waste and Other Waste Materials • Fats, Oils and Greases • Example of sources of Biofuels: corn, soybean, sugarcane, sunflower, cow manure, vegetable oils, animal fats
Why the Rise or Increased Use of Biofuels? • Called the Renewable Fuel Standard (RFS), the regulation establishes a credit-trading system that will mandate the use of 7.5 billion gallons of ethanol nationwide by 2012 — up from 4 billion gallons this year. • “For years, our nation’s rolling farm fields have filled America’s breadbaskets,” EPA Administrator Stephen Johnson said. “Now, by helping meet President Bush’s renewable energy goals, these same fields are filling America’s gas tanks.” • EPA estimates that the this will reduce petroleum consumption between 2.3 billion to 3.9 billion gallons — slightly more than 1 percent of the petroleum that would be used in the transportation sector. Greenhouse gas emissions will be reduced by 0.4 to 0.6 percent. Some emissions will increase emissions of volatile organic compounds and nitrogen oxides (EPA-Air Quality Control)
Why the Rise or Increased Use of Biofuels is Important? • Become less independent on other oil producing countries - “energy security” • Biodiesel: $2.79 to $3.88/Gallon • Gasoline: $3.29/Gallon • Diesel: $3.24/Gallon • Help secure a position on the global market for our country • We can turn the tables • Help protect the environment. • Biodiesel reduces emissions by 41%
Data on Biofuels-Corn • Q: How many gallons of ethanol are produced from a bushel of corn?A: 1 bushel of corn = least 2.5 gallons of ethanol. Produce 1.6 lbs. of corn oil, 10 lbs. of high protein feed, 2.6 lb of corn meal, or 31.5 lbs. of starch to make beverages or sweeteners. For more facts about ethanol, visit the National Corn Growers Association website. • Can not grow Corn to feed and fuel the world at the same time, one or the other!
Data on Biofuels-Soybeans • Q: How many gallons of biodiesel can you make from a bushel of soybeans?A: According to the U.S. Department of Agriculture's (USDA) Farm Service Agency , 1 bushel soybeans = approximately 1.4 gallons of biodiesel. Soybeans= about 20% oil, therefore = 7.3 pounds of soybean oil to produce a gallon of biodiesel. U.S. soybean production reached about 2.5 billion bushels in 2003, according to the USDA National Agricultural Statistics Service. The United States produces about 20 million gallons of biodiesel per year using soybeans and other feed stocks. • 2 billion pounds soybean oil = .15 to .35 cents per bushel.
Data on Biofuels • For each bushel (60 pounds) of soybeans produced only 10 pounds of extracted oil is used in making biodiesel=50 pounds (the soy meal) is used for food=high protein food available. • Algae produce 100 times more oil per acre than traditional food oilseed crops such as soy. Note: Algae produces 4,000 gallons of oil per acre per year versus 50 gallons per acre for soy.
Key to success for New Mexico’s Future in Biofuels • Methane Gas-Dairies • Magic Valley in Idaho • Intrepid Technology and Resources, Inc. • Red Algae-Bio Diesel Green Star Products, Inc. • Sunlight and Salt Water • Abengoa-France-Ethanol • Distribution and Locations-Do not have any in NM • Funding Farm Bill- $900,000,000.00 (includes matching funds)
EarthBiofuels • Durant, OK • 10 million gallons/year
West Point Dairy • 10 tanks=10million lbs of manure processed • 5,000 homes • 1cow=17,000 cubic feet of methane /year
One More Problem? • Who is going to regulate Biofuels? • EPA • USDA • DOT • DOE
References • http://www.biorenew.iastate.edu/resources/glossary-of-biorenewables-terms.html • http://environment.newscientist.com/channel/earth/energy-fuels/dn9519-biodiesel-beats-ethanol-in-biofuel-battle.html • http://www.nist.gov/oiaa/KarlSimon.pdf • http://www.epa.gov/otaq/models/analysis/biodsl/p02001.pdf • http://www.fsa.usda.gov/FSA/webapp?area=home&subject=coop&topic=landing • http://www.biofueloasis.com/index.html • http://www.transtats.bts.gov/ • http://www.greenstarusa.com/index.html • http://www.intrepid21.com/biogas.htm