Systems of the Body The Muscular System
Functions of the Muscular System Movement Stability Control of body openings and passages Communication Heat production
Three types of muscle • Smooth: involuntary control blood vessels, bladder • Cardiac: involuntary control the heart • Skeletal: voluntary control connect muscle to bone
Smooth Muscle Distinguishing fiber characteristics - short fibers - tapered ends - not striated (stripped) Cross-section view Longitudinal view
Smooth Muscle involuntary control – controlled by the autonomic nervous system digestive tract, blood vessels, most hollow organs Contractions are slow and rhythmical
Cardiac Muscle longitudinal view Cross-section view Distinguishing fiber characteristics - striated fibers - Cross-section view
Cardiac Muscle Only found in the heart. Obviously has a relatively important job. Contracts rhythmically for life without tiring Every human heart beats approximately 100,000 times per day…for life!
Skeletal Muscle (striated) Distinguishing fiber characteristics - striated fibers - long (up to 12 inches) - cylindrical - tapered ends Cross-section view longitudinal view
Skeletal Muscle (striated) Moves and supports the skeleton Uses voluntary action Skeletal muscles can only pull Most skeletal muscles work in pairs Movements can be rapid, explosive, powerful Skeletal muscles tire easily
Muscle Facts • Muscles = 40% of body weight • Over 600 muscles in human body • The longest muscle in the body is the sartorius, from the outside of the hip, down and across to the inside of the knee. It twists and pulls the thigh outwards. • The smallest muscle in the body is the stapedius, deep in the ear. It is only 5mm long and thinner than cotton thread. It is involved in hearing. • The biggest muscle in the body is the gluteus maximus, in the buttock. It pulls the leg backwards powerfully for walking and running.
Muscle Trivia There are over 60 muscles in the face. Everyone smile. Now frown. Which one uses more muscles? The frown uses 40 muscles while smiling using only 20 muscles. So stop wasting energy and just smile!!!
What is a tendon? The strong, sinuous fiber that connects muscle to bone. Embeds in the epimysium of the muscle and weaves into the periosteum of the bone. When a muscle contracts, the tendon pulls the bone to create movement.
Muscle Injury Muscle strain: aka pull, tear damage to the muscle and/or its attaching tendons. Can be in the form of tearing (full or partial) of the muscle fibers and tendons attached to the muscle. Can also damage small blood vessels causing local bleeding (bruising/edema) and pain (caused by irritation of the nerve endings in the area).
Most commonly strained muscles Tibialis Anterior, Extensor Digitorum Longus, & Extensor Hallucis Longus Hamstrings Quadriceps Rotator cuff Pectoralis (major and minor) Sternocleidomastoid Whiplash
Muscle strain diagnosis Symptoms: redness, swelling, bruising (edema), or even open cuts as a result of injury. Pain at rest. Pain when that specific muscle is used. Weakness of muscle and/or tendons. Inability to use muscle at all.
Muscle strain treatment R.I.C.E.
Rest: Avoid activities that caused the strain. Rest means not using the affected muscle/joint to allow for the healing process. This means sit your butt down and relax. Do not jog. Do not pretend to pitch. Do not attempt to sail to Cuttyhunk solo. Do not ride your bike through the State Forest for 10 miles. Do no go to the skate park to practice for a tournament. REST!!!
Ice: Apply ice to the affected area for 20 minutes (max) every hour while awake for the first 48 hours after injury. You can use a bag of frozen peas, crush up ice cubes in a bag, or a reusable gel pack. For certain injuries ice massage is preferred. In that case, freeze a small plastic bottle about half filled with water. Use the frozen end of the bottle to gently massage the affected area for 20 minutes per hour for the first 48 hours after injury. BE CAREFUL!!! Do not lay ice directly on your skin. Always be sure that there is either a towel or clothing between you and the ice. Frostbite is a real danger!!! (yes, even in the summer)
Compression: Apply constant, gentle compression with an Ace bandage (elastic bandage) or even spandex clothing. This will provide support for the injured area, help to keep swelling minimal, and provide slight protection as well.
Elevation: Elevate the injured area to decrease swelling. By keeping the injured area above the level of your heart, less blood will be pumped to that area. This means less swelling. For example: lay on the couch with pillows under your knee and a few more under your ankle for injuries to your leg. If your injury is on your arm, prop your arm up as high as you can by using pillows or the back of the couch or chair. Be creative but be smart. Be careful not to injure yourself further.
Muscle strain treatment Another important part of treatment and recovery can be nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory medicine like Advil or other generic ibuprofen. Arnica is a homeopathic remedy that may also work for inflammation and pain. WARNING: Always be sure to talk to your parents about taking any medication. You must be sure that you are not allergic or taking any other medications that may interact.
Muscle strain treatment If no improvement in 24 hours after you have tried proper treatment, consult a medical professional. OR If you hear a “pop” or “rip” at the time of injury consult a medical professional immediately. Go to the Emergency Room especially if there is significant swelling and/or bleeding.
An ounce of prevention now is worth a pound of cure later.
How to prevent muscle injuries Have a daily stretching routine even if you are not going to exercise. Start off the morning right. Warm-up appropriately before engaging in strenuous exercise or work. Eat a nutritious diet. Muscles need protein to heal as well as other nutrients to function properly. Drink plenty of H2O!!! Muscles need water too!!! STAY IN SHAPE!!! Don’t try to run 5 miles the first day of practice. You are asking for trouble!!!!
Significance? Who drew it?