Internal Combustion Engine The internal combustion engine is an engine in which the combustion of a fuel (normally a fossil fuel) occurs with an oxidizer (usually air) in a combustion chamber. Created by Raymond Nuñez Mr. Zequeia, Period 5
Common Engine Designs The most common engine design, hands down, is the V design. Most engines you read about have a “V6”, in some cases a “V8”, all the way up to a “V12”, which is essentially 2 separate “V6” engines put together, sharing the same crankshaft. Flat engines offer a low center of gravity and thereby may offer a drive configuration with better stability and control. They are also wider than other engines configurations, presenting complications with the fitment of the engine within the engine bay of a front-engine car. A straight engine is considerably easier to build than an otherwise Flat or V engine, because both the cylinder bank and crankshaft can be milled from a single metal casting, and it requires fewer cylinder heads and camshafts. In-line engines are also much smaller in overall physical dimensions than designs like the radial, and can be mounted in any direction. Straight configurations are simpler than their V-shaped counterparts.
Basic Engine Components Cylinder(s): The core of the engine is the cylinder, with the piston moving up and down inside the cylinder. Spark plug(s): The spark plug supplies the spark that ignites the air/fuel mixture so that combustion can occur. The spark must happen at just the right moment for things to work properly. Valves: The intake and exhaust valves open at the proper time to let in air and fuel and to let out exhaust. Note that both valves are closed during compression and combustion so that the combustion chamber is sealed. Piston: A piston is a cylindrical piece of metal that moves up and down inside the cylinder. Crankshaft: The crankshaft turns the piston's up and down motion into circular motion just like a crank on a jack-in-the-box does. This is what all the commotion is about- all the explosions, all the cylinders, just to rotate the crankshaft, which eventually leads on to the transmission, then immediately after to your wheels. There are dozens of more engine components, such as the ignition system cooling system, oil system, brake system, and a whole lot more systems.
4-stroke CycleDetails • Intake • The piston starts at the top, the intake valve opens, and the piston moves down to let the engine take in a cylinder-full of air and gasoline. This is the intake stroke. Only the tiniest drop of gasoline needs to be mixed into the air for this to work. • Compression • Then the piston moves back up to compress this fuel/air mixture. Compression makes the explosion more powerful. • Combustion/Power • When the piston reaches the top of its stroke, the spark plug emits a spark to ignite the gasoline. The gasoline charge in the cylinder explodes, driving the piston down. This, in conjunction with other cylinders, is what creates the mechanical movement of the crankshaft. • Exhaust • Once the piston hits the bottom of its stroke, the exhaust valve opens and the exhaust leaves the cylinder to go out the tailpipe.
Popular V6 Engine 1999-2004 Stock Ford Mustang 3.8L OHV ”Essex” V6 190 hp @ 5250 rpm 220 lb·ft torque @ 2750 rpm Naturally aspirated
Popular V8 Engine 2009-2011 Chevrolet Corvette ZR1 6.2L “LS9” V8 638 horsepower @ 6500 RPM 604 lb-ft torque @ 3800 RPM Forced induction: Supercharged, Eaton TVS R2300 Roots 4-lobe supercharger with intercoolers from Behr, utilizing an air-to-water, dual-brick design. When comparing the 99-04’ V6 found in the Mustang to this ferocious Corvette engine, you see how much power these engines can make. Not only is it a larger, more air-per-second sucking V8 than the puny V6, but it has a state-of-the-art Eaton Roots supercharger, that really makes this engine stand out.
Popular V10 Engine It really looks… like as if it’s a toy; like as if it’s not real. However, this V10 does not play. 2007-2008 Lamborghini Gallardo Superleggera 4.9L 40 valves DOHC V10 523 horsepower @ 8000 RPM 376 lb-ft torque @ 4250 Naturally aspirated
Popular V12 Engine 2002-2004 Ferrari Enzo 4 valves per cylinder DOHC V12 651 horsepower @ 7800 RPM 485 lb-ft @ 5500 RPM Naturally aspirated
Summary This has been a basic introduction to automobile internal combustion engines. We use them every single day, whether it’s getting to school or going to the park, or whether you’re eating an apple that was transported on a truck’s bed that was powered by an internal combustion engines, they’re all around us.