In the 1800s, hospitals were often dangerous places. Many doctors didn't wear caps and gowns or wash their hands before they began to work. Doctors also hadn't discovered how to put people to sleep so a patient was usually awake during an operation. Some people died from the pain, but more often, they died from an infection, when germs got into their wounds. Back then, people believed that an infection was caused by something in the air.
“Father Of Modern Surgery" The hospital environment has not always been a place of sterility and extreme cleanliness that is associated with it so readily today. Prior to the work of Joseph Lister, the hospital was a place to go to die, not to be cured. If an individual was able to survive the pain and torture of surgery without anesthesia, a postoperative infection would most certainly be their ultimate demise. Thanks to Joseph Lister, a hospital is now a place of healing and cleanliness, not one of death and filth.
Doctor Joseph Lister spent many years trying to find out how to prevent infection. In 1869, Dr. Lister invented a pump to spray carbolic acid into the air in operating theaters. It wasn't very pleasant to work with, but the chemical killed the bugs and kept patients safer. Soon, other hospitals began to use carbolic acid and more and more people survived their operations. Joseph Lister, bug buster, had made an important discovery that saved many lives.
Carbolic Acid is produced when phenol reacts with water……………. OH O ─ + + H3O + H2O
4 - hexylresorcinol 4 – chloro – 3,5 – dimethylphenol OH OH OH CH3 3HC Cl (CH2)5CH3
Because of Joseph Lister’s contribution to science, specifically in the field of medicine…. The first company that produces health care and hygiene products was name after him to give him recognition for his works.
OH An “alcohol – like” compounds that have the hydroxyl group bound to a benzene ring.
Phenol is derived from the old name for benzene (phene), to include the suffix that indicates it possesses a hydroxyl group (ol). CAUTION: The wordphenol (C6H5-OH) is often confused with phenyl (C6H5-). Phenols are acidic and are important intermediates in the preparation of aryl ethers, C6H5-OR .
Phenol may be found as a translucent, clear, or light-pink crystalline mass; a white powder, or a clear liquid. It has a sweet, sharp odor or medicinal odor. Addition of small amount of water causes the solid to liquefy at room temperature. Phenol is used in many commercially available products including plastics, resins, fertilizers, paints, photographic developers, and some medicines.
Description: Phenol is both a manufactured chemical and a natural substance. It is a colorless-to-white solid when pure. The commercial product is a liquid. Phenol has a distinct odor that is sickeningly sweet and tarry. You can taste and smell phenol at levels lower than those that are associated with harmful effects. Phenol evaporates more slowly than water, and a moderate amount can form a solution with water. Warning properties: pungent odor is usually adequate to warn of acute exposure ingestion can be fatal. Flammability:nonflammable
OH OCH3 EUGENOL / Cloves CH2 – CH ═ CH2
OH OCH3 ISOEUGENOL/NUTMEG CH ═ CH – CH3
OCH3 ANETHOLE CH ═ CH – CH3
OH OCH3 VANILLIN H – C ═ O
CH3 OH CH – CH3 3HC THYMOL / THYME MINT
O C – O – CH3 OH METHYL SALICYLATE
CH3 OH C CH3 CH3 Butylated Hydroxy Anisole (BHA) 2 – t – butyl – 4 - methoxyphenol OCH3
CH3 CH3 OH C CH3 3HC C CH3 CH3 (BHT) 2,6 – di – t – butyl – 4 - methylphenol CH3 Butylated Hydroxy Toluene
O C – OH OH Salicylic Acid
OH OH CH2 O - phenylphenol Cl 2 – benzyl – 4 - chlorophenol
Rubber & Plastic Antioxidant