Biology PowerPoint By: Austin Biggers and Andy Favre
CHNOPS • Carbon-Carbon is the chemical element with symbol C and atomic number 6. As a member of group 14 on the periodic table, it is a non-metal • Hydrogen-Hydrogen is the chemical element with atomic number 1. It is represented by the symbol H. Hydrogen is the lightest and most abundant chemical element • Nitrogen-Nitrogen is a chemical element that has the symbol N, atomic number of 7 .Elemental nitrogen is a colorless, odorless, tasteless and mostly gas at regular conditions.
CHNOPS Continued • Oxygen-is the element with atomic number 8 and represented by the symbol O. is a highly reactive nonmetallic period 2 element that r forms compounds with almost all other elements • Phosphorus-is the chemical element that has the symbol P and atomic number 15. A nonmetal of the nitrogen group, phosphorus is commonly found in rocks. Elemental phosphorus exists in two major forms - white phosphorus and red phosphorus. • Sulfur-is the chemical element that has the atomic number 16. It is denoted with the symbol S. It is an abundant, non-metal. Sulfur, in its native form, is a bright yellow crystalline solid. In nature, it can be found as the pure element and as minerals. It is an essential element for life and is found in two amino acids: cysteine and methionine.
Bonds • A chemical bond is an attraction between atoms or molecules and allows the formation of chemical compounds, which contain two or more atoms. • A covalent bond is a form of chemical bonding that is characterized by the sharing of pairs of electrons between atoms, and other covalent bonds. • An ionic bond is a bond formed by the attraction between two oppositely charged ions.
Carbohydrates • Carbohydrates are organic compounds that consist only of carbon, hydrogen and oxygen. • The physical properties of carbohydrates include a chain like shape as shown in this picture ->
Lipids • Lipids are hydrophobic. Which means that they are repulsive to water. • Lipids also have Lipophilicity which means that they are fat loving.
Enzymes • Enzymes are mainly proteins, that increase the rates of chemical reactions. • Proteins-are organic compounds made of amino acids and are arranged in a linear chain. • Amino Acids-Organic compounds made of carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitro gen, and sulfur bonded in characteristic formations. Strings of amino acids make up proteins. • Catalysis-The act or process of cat alyzing, or speeding up the rate of reaction between substances.
WATER • In water, each hydrogen nucleus is bound to the central oxygen atom by a pair of electrons that are shared between them. • Water is one of the few known substances whose solid form is less dense than the liquid. Another interesting property of water is its high boiling point.
Nucleotides • Nucleotides consist of 3 parts: • A five-carbon sugar • A nitrogen-containing ring structure called a base • One, two, or three phosphate groups.
Proteins • Jobs of Proteins: • Form bonds • Builds muscles • Joins DNA