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The Scientific Method

The Scientific Method

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The Scientific Method

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  1. The Scientific Method • Do you remember this from science class? • http://education-portal.com/academy/lesson/psychology-is-a-science.html

  2. Types of Research SIX types of Research

  3. Naturalistic Observation • = observing behavior in the natural environment w/o manipulation • POSITIVES: • NEGATIVES:

  4. Case Study • = a thorough study of an individual • CHRIS SIZEMORE - DID • Positives: • Negatives:

  5. Surveys • = Collecting data about the beliefs, attitudes, or behaviors of people by asking them • Positives: • Negatives:

  6. Controlled Experiments • = scientists compare 2 things or groups that are the same except for one variable • Example: Drug testing • Independent variable= • Dependent variable= • Experimental group= • Control group=

  7. Hypothesis • Swimming regularly will lead to weight loss in obese subjects. • Independent variable= • Dependent variable= • Operational definition= • Experimental group= • Control group=

  8. One big design problem to notice Are there any confounding variables we have not controlled for?

  9. Confounding Variables • Example: Testing 2 groups of teens > one group is tested at 8am and the other at 1pm • Why might this be a problem? • Example: Testing a new method and an old > Group one gets the stodgy monotone teacher and Group two gets the attractive, young enthusiastic teacher

  10. Correlational Research(speculation that may indicate a relationship exists) • Correlations: positive, negative or zero? • Typing practice and typing errors • Weight in pounds and hours of TV viewing • Educational level and income • IQ and levels of prejudice • # of peaches imported into the U.S. and divorce rates

  11. Correlations (continued) • SAT scores and college GPA • SAT scores and teacher salaries • Number of plants in your home and number of times you brush your teeth daily • Educational level and levels of obedience to authority • Test anxiety and test performance

  12. Correlational Research • How do we measure the strength of a correlation?

  13. Correlational Research • Positive, negative or zero • Graphed on scatter plots • Expressed as an “r” coefficient • “r” coeffcients: • ranges from +1.00 to -1.00 • Absolute value of corr. coeff. indicates strength of relationship ex. r=-80 or r=+80

  14. Correlational Research • What is the most important phrase to remember in correlational research? • Dr. Goldberger and the Pellegra epidemic

  15. Experimental Method • Placebos • Blind • Double-blind study

  16. Experimental Conditions in the Lang Study

  17. Another factor to consider when conducting research

  18. Ethics of Research with Humans • Ethical review committee and ethical standards • Promote individual dignity, human welfare and scientific integrity • Ensure no harm will come to subjects • Informed consent • Confidentiality • Deception • Debriefing

  19. Ethics of Research with Animals • Animals are used when research cannot be carried out with humans • Animals may be harmed, only when: • there is no alternative, and • benefits of the research justify the harm