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Electric and Hybrids Vehicles in Public Transportation Systems

Electric and Hybrids Vehicles in Public Transportation Systems. Benedito Oliveira Sep. 2013. Objective. Discuss the basics of Electric and Hybrid Buses in the application for public transport system.

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Electric and Hybrids Vehicles in Public Transportation Systems

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  1. Electric and Hybrids Vehicles in Public Transportation Systems Benedito Oliveira Sep. 2013

  2. Objective • Discuss the basics of Electric and Hybrid Buses in the application for public transport system. • In this presentation electrification is considered as the use of Electrical Energy as Traction force. The source of electrical energy is the Traction Battery and the way to charge it can be from the vehicle itself (Hybrid) and or from the Grid (Plugin Hybrid, Electrical Vehicle).

  3. Agenda • Why Electromobility? • Hybrid and Electrical Powertrain concepts • Application • Volvo Hybrid B215RH Benedito Oliveira

  4. Way to electro mobility City requests: • Silent • Fuel and energy efficient • Low or zero emissions • Sustainable energy sources

  5. Why Electro mobility? • The main driver for electro mobility is “Energy Efficiency” • Linked to energy efficiency is: • Low to no tailpipe emissions • Low interior and exterior noise • Low CO2 emissions • Low LCC Drive distance with same available energy Diesel 10 Km 48 Kwh Hybrid 14.2 Km * Technical limitations -Range -Charge Frequency -Charging time Plug-in Hybrid 25 Km * Full electric (Normal bus) 34 Km * Full electric (Light bus) 44 Km

  6. 98 % < 30 % ave El. mach 95 % 98 % D D AMT gearbox Diesel Engine Power Electronics 95 % + - Energy Storage 90x90 % The Conventional Drivetrain • Advantage: • High range • Drawbacks: • Low average efficiency, 10..20 % • No regenerative braking Idea to solution: - An electric vehicle

  7. Energy use in city bus cycle

  8. El. mach El. mach D D Power Electronics Power Electronics + + - - Energy Storage Energy Storage The Electric Vehicle 95 % 95 % 98 % 98 % • Advantage: • High average efficiency • Regenerative braking • at Traction motor power • Packaging • Drawbacks: • Low range • High cost / kW tractive power 95 % 95 % 90x90 %

  9. ”PlugIn”- Charging The Hybrid Vehicle “Hybrid drives are drives that have at least two different primer movers and energy accumulators” Neumeyer, H. – Automotive transmissions

  10. Regenerative Braking The battery is loaded using the Electrical Motor operating as generator (engine brake). Diesel Engine Efficiency Diesel engine is switched off in idle (traffic light, bus stops). The diesel engine will only operate when it is more efficient. The Hybrid Vehicle

  11. El. mach El. mach D Diesel Engine Power Electronics Power Electronics + - Energy Storage The Series Hybrid Vehicle 95 % 95 % 98 % >30% 95 % 95 % • Advantage: • High range • Drawbacks: • Low ICE drive efficiency • High drive system cost / kW • All installed power NOT available • on the wheels Idea to solution: - Connect ICE to wheels mechanically – The Parallell Hybrid

  12. El. mach D Gearbox Diesel Engine Power Electronics + - Energy Storage The Parallell Hybrid Vehicle • Advantage: • High ICE drive efficiency • due to hybrid control • ICE downsizing • Low system cost / kW tractive power • High commonality with non-hybrid drive train • Redundancy if electric drive malfunction • Drawbacks: • Lower max regenerative braking due to lower EM rating than series

  13. Both Together El. mach Diesel D Gearbox Diesel Engine Power Electronics Electric Drive + - Energy Storage Enhanced Performance with Parallel Drive T rpm

  14. How can Hybrid Vehicle help to improved efficiency and fuel consumption?(Volvo Hybrid) FUEL SAVING

  15. Diesel ~ 35% Hybrid 7700 Diesel: 13.7 l/h 7700 Hybrid: 9.6 l/h Saving: 4.1 l/h 7700 Diesel: 8.5 l/h 7700 Hybrid: 6.0 l/h Saving: 2.5 l/h

  16. What are the major benefits and contraints in application? • Hybrid • (++) Flexibility in application, no need of specific infraestructure. Except for plug-in hybrids. • (+) Drive range: • Full Hybrid: 35% more than a normal diesel bus • Plug-in Hybrid: 60% more than a normall diesel bus • (+) Noise: Smaller ICE, Start-stop functionality • (-) Weight: Need for Battery, Electrical motor, Control System • Electric • (++) Zero emission • (++) Noise free • (--) Weight: Need for more battery than a hybrid vehicle, control system and bigger Electric Motor. • (--) Need for infraestruture, charging stations • (-) Drive range, need to recharge or have the grid. Benedito Oliveira

  17. Optimised public transports by 2020-Daily travel BRTHybrid bus School busFully electric TrainExpress bus +bio fuel FeederHybrid bus+ plug-in Critical time ~60 minutes30-90 km/h Bus40-250 km/h Train-600 km/h Air Down townHybrid busFully electric

  18. Summary Future technology parallel development Hybrid bus + Plug-in hybrids Diesel Fully electrical buses Drivers Noise Energy efficiency Synergies with cars and trucks Environmental impact less than Euro VI already today Less dependency on oil Low infra structure requirement

  19. The path towards Green Efficiency Hybrid Diesel HybridPlug-in City Bus Market Fully electric 2010 Future

  20. Volvo Hybrid - Curitiba

  21. VOLVO B215RH Volvo Engine 5L D5F 215HP * ESS Energy Storage System, incl Battery and control system Volvo I-Shift Transmission Li-ion ESS Electrical power steering Electrical Motor

  22. Parallel integrated design Electrical machine generator/motor800 Nm, 120 kW / 160 Hp I-Shift gear box 12 gears BatteryLi-ion 120 KW Power electronicsAC/DC converter D5 Engine800 Nm, 160 kW /215 Hp

  23. T rpm Concept Volvo Hybrid Operation modes • 0 – 20km/h: Eletric • Após 20 km/h: Hybrid • Diesel engine off during stops Characteristic • Highly Efficient Diesel Engine combined with Electrical Motor • Together or separate Traction • Diesel and Electrical coordinated to improve performance and decrease environmental impact

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