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Grammar Workshop

Grammar Workshop

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Grammar Workshop

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  1. Grammar Workshop Building Grammatical Sentences

  2. Part 1 Verb Forms Part 2 Verb Tenses Part 3 Sentence Structure

  3. Part 1: Verb Forms

  4. Why are verb forms important? • Because verbs convey important information, verb form errors change the meaning of a sentence (Janet Lane and Ellen Lange, 1999, p. 30).

  5. Types of Verb Forms • Base Form: walk, study, speak • Infinitive: to walk, to study, to speak • Gerund/present participle: walking, studying, speaking

  6. Types of Verb Forms • Past participle: walked, studied, spoken • Simple past: walked, studied, spoke • Verb phrase: has been speaking, will have spoken, am speaking (main verb + other verbs) (all examples from Lane and Lange, 1999, p. 29)

  7. Practice Making Verb Forms Take the verb “watch”. What are its forms? base form: watch infinitive: to watch gerund/present participle: watching simple past: watched past participle: watched (not the same as simple past for irregular verbs! verb phrase: has been watching, has watched, will have watched (just some examples) Let’s try some more...

  8. Verb Forms Following Verbs • Infinitives, gerunds and sometimes base forms can follow verbs. • The child wantedto play. • I enjoyliving by the sea. • The parents helpraise money every year. • No rule tells us which verb form follows which verb!

  9. Verbs followed by infinitives • Some verbs must be followed by an infinitive. • Examples • We need to go shopping. • She hopes to attend graduate school. • They decided to climb the mountain.

  10. Verbs followed by gerunds (-ing) • Some verbs must be followed by gerunds. • Examples • We considereddriving across the country. • He will denyhearing the news. • I missseeing the children.

  11. Verbs followed by either infinitives or gerunds • A smaller number of verbs are in this group. • Examples • We beginto teach reading in kindergarten. • He beganplaying piano at age 7. • Do you rememberbeing little? • I rememberedto bring the paper.

  12. Verbs followed by a base form • 4 commonly used verbs are in this group. • They are • Make: We make the kids go to school. • Have: The doctor has patients describe their symptoms. • Let: The police officer let us cross the street. • Help: Please help your brother climb the stairs.

  13. Now let’s look at Verb Phrases • Three rules: • DO + BASE FORM • I do not watch TV. • He did not watch TV. • HAVE + PAST PARTICIPLE • The students have already left/eaten. • She has already left/eaten. • They had already left/eaten.

  14. Verb Phrases, Continued • BE + PRESENT PARTICIPLE • I amtalking now. • She istalking now. • They aretalking now. • He was talking last night. • We were talking last night. • You will be talking tomorrow.

  15. Part 2: Verb Tenses

  16. Why does verb tense matter? • Time is expressed by the verb. Correct use helps the reader understand when actions or events take place. • Aspect is expressed by the verb. The correct aspect tells the reader whether the action occurs once, repeatedly or continuously.

  17. Kinds of Verb Tenses • Simple tenses • Progressive tenses • Perfect tenses

  18. Simple Tenses • Present: The kids eat lunch early. • Action is habitual. • Past: The kids ate lunch yesterday. • Action occurred at one time in the past. • Future: The kids will eat lunch tomorrow. • Action will occur at one time in the future.

  19. Simple Present • Formation: • Base form of the verb, or • For third-person singular (he/she/it), add –s or –es • Examples: • I cook meals every day. We go to school. • He cooks meals every day. She goes to school.

  20. Simple Past • Formation: • Regular verbs: base form + -ed • Irregular verbs: see a dictionary! • Examples: • The owner called his dog. They called the dogs. • I wrote to my friend. The students wrote on the board.

  21. Simple Future • Formation: • Will + base form of verb • BE + going + to + base form of verb • Examples: • The city willgrow by 1% next year. • We are going to leave tomorrow.

  22. Progressive Tenses • Also called “continuous tenses”; express continuous activity • Present Progressive: The children arewalking to school. • Past Progressive: She was sleeping when the phone rang. • Future Progressive: The dancers will be practicing next week.

  23. Present Progressive • Formation: • am/is/are + -ing • Examples: • The trees areswaying in the wind. • I ammissing something. • The radio isblaring.

  24. Past Progressive • Formation: • was/were + -ing • Examples: • I/he/she/my neighbor washumming a tune. • We/you/the kids wereselling cookies.

  25. Future Progressive • Formation: • Will + be + -ing • Examples: • I/you/he/she/the student will bedriving home. • We/you/ the students will bewaiting there.

  26. Perfect Tenses • Use when one event occurs before another time or event • Present perfect • The student has read many articles for today. • Past perfect • The group had hiked 5 miles before stopping. • Future perfect • By tomorrow, I will have finished the book.

  27. Present Perfect • Use for events that began in the past and are completed at the present time. • Formation • Simple present tense of HAVE + past participle • Examples • I/You/We havefinished that job. • She/he/the student hasearned my respect.

  28. Past Perfect • Used for events that were completedbefore a certain time in the past • Formation • Simple past tense of HAVE +past participle • Examples • By the time the storm ended, many people had lost power. • By the end of the trip, I had listened to the whole story.

  29. Future Perfect • Use for events that will be completed before a particular time in the future. • Formation • will + have + past participle • Examples • The movers will have packed the dishes by noon. • By the end of the trip, I/we/you/he/she/Bob will have traveled all day

  30. Perfect Progressive Tenses • Use to show that an event is/was/will be in progress immediately before and up to another time or event.

  31. Present Perfect Progressive • Expresses events that began before the present time and are continuing through the present time • Formation • Simple present tense of HAVE +been + -ing • Examples • She/he/Maria has been taking dance lessons for several years.

  32. Past Perfect Progressive • Use for situations that were in progress through a particular time in the past. • Formation • Had + been + -ing • Examples • It had been snowing all night. • The people had been lining up for the concert since dawn.

  33. Future Perfect Progressive • Use for events that will be in progress through a particular time in the future. • Formation • Will + have + been + -ing • Examples • By the time you arrive, I will have been cooking for an hour. • By the time the alarm goes off, the kids willhave been sleeping for 8 hours.

  34. Part 3: Sentence Structure

  35. American English Sentence Structure • Basic requirements for a sentence • At least one subject and one main verb • Some verbs require complements. • Word order is “subject-verb-complements” • At least one independent clause

  36. Problems with Sentence Structure • Run on sentences • Sentence Fragments • Lack of parallel structure

  37. Run-ons • A run-on sentence is more than a sentence. • Sometimes a sentence runs on because there is no punctuation. • Sometimes a sentence is a run-on because two independent clauses are connected by a comma (a “comma splice”). So, what is an independent clause? Next slide, please…

  38. Parts of a sentence • Independent clause: a clause that can “stand alone” because it has at least a subject and a verb • Dependent/subordinate clause: a clause that cannot stand alone, but serves as a noun, adjective or adverb • Coordinating conjunction: words such as “and,” “but,” or “or” that join 2 elements of the same sentence or construction

  39. Examples of Independent and Dependent Clauses • Independent clauses • We ate pie. • The kids wear coats. • She will go to work in the morning. • Dependent clauses (what happens when we join these to independent clauses?) • Because it was Joe’s birthday • When it’s very cold • Although tomorrow is Sunday

  40. Run-on without punctuation • Example • Attending the university has been great I like exploring ideas. • Possible corrections • Attending the university has been great. I like exploring ideas. • Attending the university has been great because I like exploring ideas. • Attending the university has been great; I like exploring ideas.

  41. Comma Splices • Example • The kids ran home, the school year was over. • Possible corrections • The kids ran home. The school year was over. • The kids ran home; the school year was over. • The kids ran home because the school year was over.

  42. Sentence Fragments • Sentence fragments do not have complete sentence structure. • They may lack a subject, a verb, or both. • Alternatively, they may be a dependent clause. Dependent clauses cannot stand alone!

  43. Sentence Fragments • Examples and corrections • Goes to school. (missing subject) • Correct: He goes to school. • The bird to the nest. (missing verb) • Correct: The bird is flying to the nest. • Who wrote the story. (dependent clause) • Correct: He is the man who wrote the story. • Because it is late. (dependent clause) • Correct: We’re going home because it is late.

  44. Lack of Parallel Structure • Parallel structure: when words in a sentence are joined by and, but, or, nor or yet, these parts of the sentence should have the same grammatical form (e.g., all infinitives, all gerunds, all nouns, all prepositional phrases).

  45. Parallel structure • Examples- what kinds of parallel structures are these? • I am reading about dogs, cats and birds. • I plan to walk the dog, write a letter and go to bed. • He was talking on the phone and doing his homework at the same time.

  46. Parallel Structure • A few more examples • We expect that the dinner will be over by 9 and that we’ll be home by 10. • The route crosses the river and climbs up the mountain. • The car is parked in front of the truck and behind the motorcycle.

  47. Dependent and Independent Clauses Commas, Semicolons and Colons Connectives Run On Sentences Verb Tenses Multiple-Word Verbs and Adjectives Count and Noncount Nouns Nouns and Noun Clauses Proper Nouns Definite and Indefinite Articles Pronouns Adjective Clauses Subject/Verb Agreement Some Writing Center Handouts You Might Find Helpful: All of the above are available on the Writing Center’s website: Scroll down to the Grammar Resources tab!